Synthesis and Evaluation of 1,5-Dithia-d-laminaribiose, Triose, and Tetraose as Truncated β-(1→3)-Glucan Mimetics.

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The preparation and characterization of a series of di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide analogues of β-(1→3)-glucans is described in which each pyranoside ring is replaced by a 5-thiopyranosyl ring and each glycosidic oxygen by a thioether. These oligomeric 1,5-dithio-d-glucopyranose derivatives were shown to inhibit the staining of human neutrophils and of mouse macrophages by fluorescent anti-CR3 and anti-Dectin-1 antibodies, respectively. The compounds were also demonstrated to stimulate phagocytosis and pinocytosis indicative of binding to the carbohydrate binding domains of complement receptor 3 (CR3) and Dectin-1. Activity in all three assays was optimum at the level of the trisaccharide mimic, suggesting that, while the replacement of ethereal oxygens by thioethers results in a greater affinity for the aromatic lined hydrophobic binding pockets, the presence of multiple longer C-S bonds eventually results in a mismatch and a loss of affinity.

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