Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM stroma (stroma-iC3b). In the present study, we have examined how stroma-iC3b interacts with hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and the role of complement (C) and complement receptor 3 (CR3) in BM injury/repair. We demonstrate here that stroma-iC3b tethers HPCs via the inserted (I) domain of HPC complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, Mac-1). Following irradiation, stroma-iC3b was observed in the presence of purified IgM and normal mouse serum (NMS), but not serum from Rag-2(-/-) mice, implicating a role for antibody (Ab) and the classic pathway of C activation. Furthermore, a novel role for soluble yeast beta-glucan, a ligand for the CR3 lectin-like domain (LLD), in the priming of CR3(+) HPC is suggested. Soluble yeast beta-glucan could enhance the proliferation of tethered HPCs, promote leukocyte recovery following sublethal irradiation, and increase the survival of lethally irradiated animals following allogeneic HPC transplantation in a CR3-dependent manner. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and beta-glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis following injury.