Top 16 Articles About diabetes

A low intake of whole grains is actually the leading dietary risk factor for death and disease in the USA. Few healthy grains are discussed in this chapter that can help prevent health problems like heart diseases, diabetes, and cancers.
Effect of processing on barley β-glucan content, its molecular weight and extractability.
β-Glucan is the most unique polysaccharide of barley which is associated with numerous health benefits including reduction of cholesterol, manage post postprandial blood glucose levels and acts as an anti-cancerous agent. Since food grains including barley are consumed after processing and it may alter the solubility, molecular weight and extractability of β-glucan affecting the health benefits. Therefore, it is important to know the processing effects on β-glucan to confirm such health claims for barley. Most of the review papers published are focused on the health benefits of β-glucan. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive report is available on the effects of barley processing on β-glucan content, molecular weight and β-glucan extractability. The present article reviews the literature on processing effects on barley β-glucan.
Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health.
Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Durum Wheat: A Review.
The characterisation of specific plant materials and the release of the durum wheat genome sequences, together with the development of more accurate classes of DNA-based markers and consensus maps, have allowed the identification of important genes involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan biosynthesis. Many QTL region have been described to be involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan but none of them were associated to one of the cellulose synthase (CslF, CslH and CslJ) and glycosyl transferase genes (GT43, GT47 and GT61), which have been designated as responsible for the regulation and accumulation of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan, respectively, in different tissues types. Nevertheless, the isolation and characterisation of the CslF6 and CslH durum gene sequences have been reported together with the expression pattern in durum endosperm at different developmental stages, increasing the speed of the genetic gains. The control of these traits by several genes makes it interesting to incorporate beneficial alleles, which can contribute to the rise in non-starch polysaccharides content in durum kernels, into introgressed lines to obtain new durum genotypes with higher (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan. The additive effects of some designated genes in the QTL regions reported could be used to generate breeding plants though the marker assisted selection (MAS) approach.
A critical review on the impacts of β-glucans on gut microbiota and human health.
The review was aimed to accumulate the evidence on types of β-glucans, their functional properties and the mechanism by how the β-glucans regulate the gut microbiota and human health. The various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, have been summarized, in particular, the changes happening upon the β-glucans supplementation on the gut microbiota. Overall, this review updates the recent studies on β-glucans and gut microbiota and also inputs the demanding questions to be addressed in β-glucans-microbiota research in the future.
Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review.
The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully understood and even the recommendation on the dose of different dietary NSPs intake among different age groups needs to be studied.
Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health: a review of current evidence and policy.
Dietary fibre comprises many different, mainly plant-based, compounds that are not fully digested in the human gut. Insoluble fibres include cellulose, hemi-celluloses and lignin and soluble fibres include pectins, β-glucan and hydro-colloids. In the UK, the daily recommended amount has increased to 30 g but only 13 % of men and 4 % of women meet this recommendation.
Fungal b-glucan, a Dectin-a ligand, promotes protectionfrom Type 1 diabetes by inducting regulatory innate immune response.
β-Glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides in cereal grains, mushrooms, algae, or microbes, including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Immune cells recognize these β-glucans through a cell surface pathogen recognition receptor called Dectin-1. Studies using β-glucans and other Dectin-1 binding components have demonstrated the potential of these agents in activating the immune cells for cancer treatment and controlling infections.
Effects of β-glucan and Vitamin D Supplementation on Inflammatory Parameters in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy
The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential effects of beta-glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated the levels of several parameters of inflammatory reactions (C-reactive protein [CRP], serum amyloid A [SAA], and interleukin- [IL-] 6), leptin, and vitamin D. Using a 3-month interval, we divided the patients into three groups: (1) supplemented with beta-glucan and vitamin D, (2) supplemented with vitamin D and placebo, and (3) supplemented with vitamin D alone. By this division, we aim not only to observe whether beta-glucan can increase the effects of vitamin D, but also to eliminate the potential effects of placebo. The doses of vitamin D corresponded to phototype, weight, age, and sex of the individual. Fifty-two diabetic retinopathy patients were selected for our study. We found significant vitamin D deficits in all cases, even after three months of supplementation with vitamin D. Significant changes in levels of CRP were observed in the beta-glucan-supplemented group; levels of SAA and IL-6 were not changed. Leptin levels were significantly lowered in the beta-glucan-supplemented group and increased in the other groups. More detailed studies and/or longer supplementation is necessary.
Concentration of NK cells after β-glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy
In our study, we focused on possible effects of supplementation with glucan and vitamin D on total numbers of NK cells in patients with diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated possible relations among nutritional state (BMI), leptin levels, and total numbers of NK cells in patients supplemented with (1) glucan and vitamin D, (2) vitamin D and placebo, and (3) vitamin D alone. Our results show that 3 months of supplementation with both glucan and vitamin D resulted in significant improvements of NK cell numbers. In addition, we found statistically significant correlation between NK cell numbers and leptin levels. Based on these results, we propose that the molecule responsible for these changes is glucan, as vitamin D alone or together with placebo caused no effects.
Vitamin D and β-glucan supplementation affects levels of leptin, apolipoproteins and general nutrition state in patients with diabetic retinopathy
Aims: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. A global pandemic increase in diabetes has led to the search for new preventative, diagnostic and curative methods. We aimed to evaluate levels of vitamin D, apolipoproteins A and B, and leptin after vitamin D/glucan supplementation. Methods: Using a collection of 52 patients with diabetic retinopathy, we evaluated levels of vitamin D, apolipoproteins A and B, and leptin, we compared this data with effects of food supplementation with vitamin D and β-glucan. We correlated our findings with a group of 20 healthy individuals. Results: There was a statistically relevant reduction of vitamin D levels in all tested groups, but more so in the diabetic group. The group supplemented with both vitamin D and β-glucan had suppressed levels of leptin, whereas supplementation with vitamin D caused an increase of leptin levels. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we conclude the importance of vitamin D and β-glucan supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Beta Glucan: Supplement or Drug? From Laboratory to Clinical Trials
Glucans are part of a group of biologically active natural molecules and are steadily gaining strong attention not only as an important food supplement, but also as an immunostimulant and potential drug. This paper represents an up-to-date review of glucans (β-1,3-glucans) and their role in various immune reactions and the treatment of cancer. With more than 80 clinical trials evaluating their biological effects, the question is not if glucans will move from food supplement to widely accepted drug, but how soon
Hypocaloric, plant-based oatmeal interventions in the treatment of poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes: A review
Background: Lifestyle interventions, including dietary modifications, play a key role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. By the second half of the last century, dietary oatmeal interventions had frequently been used in patients with diabetes; however, with the widespread introduction of insulin, this practice gradually fell into disuse. Within the last decades, the original oatmeal intervention, first described in 1903, has been modified towards a hypocaloric, low-fat, and plant-based intervention.
Nutraceutical functions of beta-glucans in human nutrition
Recent studies have shown that naturally occurring substances found in the food of the daily human diet are important for preventing chronic non-communicable diseases. One of them is beta-glucan, which is a natural polysaccharide, occurring in plant cell walls, mainly oats, barley and wheat. It is also present in baker’s yeast cells, fungal cell walls, and some microorganisms. Beta-glucan belongs to one of the dietary fiber fractions, which are attributed a number of beneficial health properties, including the prevention and treatment of certain digestive diseases and supporting the immune system. This compound has biological activity that depends on the size, molecular weight, conformation, frequency of bonds, solubility and changes in structure. Beta-glucan reduces cholesterol and glucose concentrations in the blood, which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition to its effects on lipid levels and glucose metabolism, beta-glucan also exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing the risk of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Immunostimulatory and antitumor effects have also been reported. The immunostimulatory activity of beta-glucan occurs as a result of its attachment to specific receptors present on the immune cell surface. Beta-glucan belongs to the group of prebiotics which stimulate the growth and activity of the desired natural intestinal microbiota, while inhibiting the growth of pathogens. It plays an important role in the proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and preventing inflammation as well as colon cancer. Such a number of health benefits resulting from the properties of beta-glucan may play a key role in improving health and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.