Top 87 Articles About cancer and tumor biology
A low intake of whole grains is actually the leading dietary risk factor for death and disease in the USA. Few healthy grains are discussed in this chapter that can help prevent health problems like heart diseases, diabetes, and cancers.
All fungal biomarkers demonstrated highly variable sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values, and these were generally poor in both clinical settings. GM negative predictive values were high, ranging from 85-100% for screening and 70-100% in the diagnostic setting, but failure to identify non-Aspergillus molds limits its usefulness. Future work could focus on the usefulness of combinations of fungal biomarkers in pediatric cancer and HSCT.
This study reviews some of the health-beneficial effects of probiotic yeasts and their biological substances like folic acid and β-glucan on cancer and focuses on the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic yeasts such as influencing pathogenic bacteria, inactivation of carcinogenic compounds, especially those derived from food, improvement of intestinal barrier function, modulation of immune responses, antitoxic function, apoptosis, and anti-proliferative effects.
These new concepts, along with the emerging success of combinatorial approaches to cancer treatment involving β-glucan, suggest that β-glucan may play an essential role in future strategies to prevent and inhibit tumor growth. This review emphasizes the various characteristics of β-glucan, with an emphasis on fungal β-glucan, and highlights novel approaches of β-glucan in cancer therapy.
β-Glucan is the most unique polysaccharide of barley which is associated with numerous health benefits including reduction of cholesterol, manage post postprandial blood glucose levels and acts as an anti-cancerous agent. Since food grains including barley are consumed after processing and it may alter the solubility, molecular weight and extractability of β-glucan affecting the health benefits. Therefore, it is important to know the processing effects on β-glucan to confirm such health claims for barley. Most of the review papers published are focused on the health benefits of β-glucan. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive report is available on the effects of barley processing on β-glucan content, molecular weight and β-glucan extractability. The present article reviews the literature on processing effects on barley β-glucan.
Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
Overall, these data indicate that WGP may be a potent immune modulator of MDSC suppressive function and differentiation in cancer.
The characterisation of specific plant materials and the release of the durum wheat genome sequences, together with the development of more accurate classes of DNA-based markers and consensus maps, have allowed the identification of important genes involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan biosynthesis. Many QTL region have been described to be involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan but none of them were associated to one of the cellulose synthase (CslF, CslH and CslJ) and glycosyl transferase genes (GT43, GT47 and GT61), which have been designated as responsible for the regulation and accumulation of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan, respectively, in different tissues types. Nevertheless, the isolation and characterisation of the CslF6 and CslH durum gene sequences have been reported together with the expression pattern in durum endosperm at different developmental stages, increasing the speed of the genetic gains. The control of these traits by several genes makes it interesting to incorporate beneficial alleles, which can contribute to the rise in non-starch polysaccharides content in durum kernels, into introgressed lines to obtain new durum genotypes with higher (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan. The additive effects of some designated genes in the QTL regions reported could be used to generate breeding plants though the marker assisted selection (MAS) approach.
This article reviews the effects of different enriched β-glucan food consumption on immune responses, inflammation, gut hormone and cancer. Gut hormones are influenced by enriched β-glucan food consumption and levels of such peptide as YY, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 in humans influence serum glucose concentration as well as innate and adaptive immunity. Cancer cell development is also regulated by obesity and glucose dishomeostasy that are influenced by β-glucan food consumption that in turn regulated gut hormones.
Emerging data suggest that the TME can be actively manipulated by β-glucans and their related nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of conditioning TME using β-glucan and β-glucan-based nanoparticles, and how this strategy enables future design of optimal combination cancer immunotherapies.
The review was aimed to accumulate the evidence on types of β-glucans, their functional properties and the mechanism by how the β-glucans regulate the gut microbiota and human health. The various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, have been summarized, in particular, the changes happening upon the β-glucans supplementation on the gut microbiota. Overall, this review updates the recent studies on β-glucans and gut microbiota and also inputs the demanding questions to be addressed in β-glucans-microbiota research in the future.
This review provides a brief overview on laminarin characteristics, modification strategies and highlights its pivotal biomedical applications.
Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points were time-to-treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), safety, quality of life (QOL), and biomarker. The percentages of LNT-binding monocytes in peripheral blood prior to treatment were analysed for the biomarker assessment. Results: One hundred and fifty-four and 155 patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT, respectively. The median OS was 13.8 and 9.9 months (P = 0.208), the median TTF was 4.3 and 2.6 months (P < 0.001), the ORR was 22.3% and 18.7% for the S-1 and S-1 plus LNT groups, respectively. The incidences of haematologic and non-haematologic adverse events were similar, and no significant changes in QOL scores were observed during the treatment in both groups. In a subpopulation of patients with LNT-binding monocytes ≥2%, patients who received more than two cycles of chemotherapy showed a longer survival time in the S-1 plus LNT group. Conclusions: OS did not improve and TTF was significantly worse in the S-1 plus LNT group as compared with the S-1-only group. This study showed no efficacy of LNT when combined with S-1 treatment in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer.
Both basic and preclinical studies showed that GSP has antitumor, antioxidant, anticytopenia, and unique mushroom-poison detoxification properties that are different from that of GLPS. Our goal is to provide a molecular picture that would allow in-depth evaluation of GSP as one of few glycan-based drugs that has been used as an immunomodulatory adjunctive drug during cancer therapy.
Results: ORR was higher in the BTH1677 vs Control arm but the difference between groups was not statistically significant (60.4% vs 43.5%; P = .2096). All other clinical endpoints also favored the BTH1677 arm but none statistically differed between arms. PK was consistent with previous studies. Although a higher incidence of Grade 3/4 AEs occurred in the BTH1677 vs Control arm (93.2% vs 66.7%), no unexpected AEs were observed. Serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs were lower in the BTH1677 vs Control arm. Conclusions: Improvements in tumor assessments and survival were observed with BTH1677/bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel compared with control treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Several experimental evidences have demonstrated a crucial role for β-glucan in the host–pathogen interaction during infections. Moreover, considerable efforts have been made to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of β-glucan in fungal pathogenesis as well as how it promotes a phagocytic-mediated immune response. Similarly, administration of fungal β-glucan is well known to stimulate the immune system and boost resistance to various infectious diseases and cancers, highlighting the multifaceted role of this molecule (Figure (Figure1).1). However, although many in vivo studies have shown a beneficial effect of the β-glucans isolated from different sources, a comprehensive investigation of the mechanism of action is still lacking. In addition, the absence of detailed methodology on experimentation, β-glucan molecules source and purity reached render interpretation of the various results very complex. As such, discrepancies observed in the different studies are mainly related to the choice of purified components being used. In addition, unfortunately only few human studies are available and most of them have not been followed up with success. Hence, the possibility for clinical application of β-glucan should be considered with caution and will require further investigation. Future studies need to deeply characterize how β-glucans with different structure and molecular weight interact with each receptor and which specific signaling pathways are triggered. Moreover, providing details on the procedure and composition of the carbohydrate molecule under investigation remains crucial. An understanding should be made in the near future to use a common standardized β-glucan molecule with described biochemical properties. With such a common control, we might endeavor a rational use of this promising molecule in the future as an adjuvant or therapeutic agent.
The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully understood and even the recommendation on the dose of different dietary NSPs intake among different age groups needs to be studied.
In this investigation, gene expression profiles were compared between AP-treated and control human breast cancer ZR-75-1 cells to elucidate the mechanism of AP mitogenicity.
For years, it has been held that cathepsin D (CD) is involved in rather non-specific protein degradation in a strongly acidic milieu of lysosomes. Studies with CD knock-out mice revealed that CD is not necessary for embryonal development, but it is indispensable for postnatal tissue homeostasis
Procathepsin D (pCD) is a glycoprotein secreted abundantly by cancerous cells with a documented role in tumor development.
This review focused on the biological properties of glucan and glucomannan.
In this paper, the effects of Procathepsin D (pCD)
were evaluated by proliferation in vitro and by mouse studies in vivo.
Synthesis of beta glucan
Cancer is considered a fetal disease caused by uncontrolled proliferation and progression of abnormal cells. The most efficient cancer therapies suppress tumor growth, prevent progression and metastasis, and are minimally toxic to normal cells. Natural compounds have shown a variety of chemo-protective effects alone or in combination with standard cancer therapies.
In this study, we showed that SGA suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. SGA also potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. TGFβ signaling and overexpression of Slug are regarded as the critical events in lung tumor malignancy.
A nanoplatform carrying doxorubicin (Dox) for cancer therapy and a dye for imaging was developed based on a natural triple helix β-glucan (t-LNT) and polydeoxyadenylic acid (poly(dA)). The t-LNT-Dox conjugates were prepared through Schiff-base reaction between the aldehyde group in the oxidized t-LNT and the amino group of Dox, the single chains (s-LNT-Dox) of which interacted with the poly(dA)-dye to form a composite s-LNT-Dox/poly(dA)-dye through hydrogen bonding between s-LNT and poly(dA).
β-glucans are polysaccharides comprising β-D-glucoses with various bioactivities. Herein, we extracted three β-glucans from Lentinus edodes with different sources and assessed their antitumor activities on a mice model with intragastric, intraperitoneal and intratumoral injection.
Imprime PGG (Imprime) is an i.v. administered, yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucan in clinical development with checkpoint inhibitors. Imprime-mediated innate immune activation requires immune complex formation with naturally occurring IgG anti-β glucan Abs (ABA).
Development of high photothermal performance and biocompatible nanotherapeutic agents is of great importance for photothermal cancer treatment. In this paper, we have developed lentinan decorated tungsten oxide nanorods ([email protected] NRs) via a mild one-step solvothermal route.
MS4A4A is a tetraspan molecule selectively expressed in macrophages during differentiation and polarization, essential for dectin-1-dependent activation of NK cell-mediated resistance to metastasis.
Dietary fibre comprises many different, mainly plant-based, compounds that are not fully digested in the human gut. Insoluble fibres include cellulose, hemi-celluloses and lignin and soluble fibres include pectins, β-glucan and hydro-colloids. In the UK, the daily recommended amount has increased to 30 g but only 13 % of men and 4 % of women meet this recommendation.
In the present study, we further explored its antitumor effects in vivo as an immune stimulator.
A water insoluble β-glucan (PS), with molecular mass ∼9.16 × 104 Da was isolated from the 4% alkaline extract of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus djamor and found to consist of (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl moiety.
The current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and are not well supported. Beta-glucan or quercetin in a diet can alleviate colorectal cancer (CRC) by regulating the gut microbiota and related genes, but the effects of alternating their consumption for routine ingestion during CRC occurrence remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of alternating the consumption of β-glucan and quercetin for routine ingestion on CRC development in mice.
A polysaccharide-enriched extract obtained from Lentinula edodes was submitted to several purification steps to separate three different D-glucans with β-(1→6), β-(1→3),(1→6) and α-(1→3) linkages, being characterized through GC-MS, FT-IR, NMR, SEC and colorimetric/fluorimetric determinations.
β-glucans represent a heterogeneous group of naturally occurring and biologically active polysaccharides found in many kinds of edible mushrooms, baker's yeast, cereals and seaweeds, whose health-promoting effects have been known since ancient times. These compounds can be taken orally as food supplements or as part of daily diets, and are safe to use, nonimmunogenic and well tolerated.
Grifola frondosa is an edible and medicinal mushroom with great nutritional values and bioactivities. In the present study, a soluble homogeneous β-glucan, GFPS, with high molecular mass of 5.42 × 106 Da was purified from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa using 5% cold NaOH.
β1,3-glucans from fungi, cereals, seaweeds and bacteria have been shown to possess favourable biological and anti-carcinogenic activities including upregulation of phagocytosis, cytokine production enhancement, superoxide and nitrite production; antibody secretion and stimulation of signalling pathways associated with proto-oncogene expression.
The polysaccharides beta-glucans occur as a principal component of the cellular walls. Some microorganisms, such as yeast and mushrooms, and also cereals such as oats and barley, are of economic interest because they contain large amounts of beta-glucans.
This investigation explored mechanisms of tumor therapy with soluble beta-glucan in mice.
When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b. From VV (via email w/ AJ) First discovery of glucan binding to the CR3 receptors and the mechanisms of priming of this receptor for cytotoxic action.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) First discovery of glucan binding to the CR3 receptors and the mechanisms of priming of this receptor for cytotoxic action.
The present findings show that beta-glucans enhance the tumor response to PDT, resulting in pronounced necrosis of PDT-treated tumors and suppression of the DNA damage repair system.
This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated these approaches, and highlights promising combination vaccine/immunomodulator combination treatments based upon published clinical trial results.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Isolated glucan from mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes), named it lentinan.
MLT contributes to protecting the oral cavity from tissue damage caused by receptor action. Experimental evidence suggests that it may be useful in the treatment and prognosis of tumour processes in the oral cavity.
Oral beta glucan administration seems to stimulate proliferation and activation of peripheral blood monocytes in vivo in patients with advanced breast cancer.
A soluble fraction of particulate glucan was prepared and evaluated for its anti-tumor and anti-bacterial activity.
The antitumor effect of extracts obtained from the fruit body of Agaricus blazei Murill was examined in a double-grafted tumor system, in which BALB/c mice received simultaneous intradermal injections of Meth-A tumor cells in both the right (10(6) cells) and left flank (2 x 10(5) cells), and were then injected with 5 mg of extracts of A. blazei in the right tumor on days 3, 4 and 5.
A soluble homogeneous β-glucan, GFPBW1, with a molecular mass of 300 kDa was purified from the fraction of the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa extracted with 5% NaOH. Using various methods, such as infrared spectroscopy, NMR, methylation and monosaccharide composition analysis, its structure was determined to be a β-D-(1-3)-linked glucan backbone with a single β-D-(1-6)-linked glucopyranosyl residue branched at C-6 on every third residue.
Our data reveal a beneficial effect of beta-(1-3), (1-6)-D-glucan in tumor growth inhibition by tumor-specific peptide vaccination which may rely on a function of the polymeric sugar as immunological adjuvant.
Glucans, or polymers of D-glucose linked by (1→3)-β and (1→6)-β glycosidic linkages are the common polysaccharides of the fungal cell wall. They are usually located in the inner part of the wall and play the role of skeletal polysaccharide contributing to the shape and rigidity of the cell wall.
The antitumor activity of a branched beta-1,3-glucan "grifolan LE" purified from liquid cultures of Grifola frondosa (Ohno et al. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 34, 1709-1715 (1986] was examined on an allogeneic murine tumor system.
Marked tumor-regressing activity was induced in the serum of S180 tumor-bearing mice by injection of an antitumor polysaccharide, CM-TAK [carboxymethylated beta(1-3)glucan]. Maximal activity was induced 7-14 days after the tumor transplantation and 10-12 h after CM-TAK treatment.
In this paper, we review existing data on the mechanism of whole mushrooms and isolated mushroom compounds, in particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and the means by which they modulate the immune system and potentially exert tumor-inhibitory effects.
Tumor cells (AH130 hepatoma cell originated from rat) were injected intraportally into Donryu rats to produce liver metastases 21 days later. Phagocyte cells activity was depressed by the administration of Silica, which significantly increased the number of surface liver metastases.
The antitumor activity of (1----3)-beta-D-glucans was tested in order to clarify its conformation-dependent response together with conformational elucidation by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy. It was shown that the following three conformations, single chain, single helix and triple helix, are readily distinguished by the high-resolution solid-state 13C-NMR method.
A cell-wall preparation from the cells of Elsinoe leucospila, which produces elsinan extracellularly when grown on sucrose or glucose-potato extract medium, was fractionated systematically.
The relationship between the conformation of (1----3)-beta-D-glucans in gel or hydrated form and the stimulation of two types of biological responses, namely, activation of coagulation Factor G from limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and host-mediated antitumor activity was examined.
A potent tumor-regressing activity was found in the serum of mice with S180 tumor undergoing rapid regression caused by antitumor polysaccharides. Beta (1-3) glucan including CM-TAK and lentinan and mannoglucan MGA induced such activity.
The early cellular responses to antitumor immunomodulators and conventional inducers, especially the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) responses, were examined in the peritoneal cavity of mice to investigate their effect on primary defense mechanisms.
The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan.
The antitumor activity of a combination of an antitumor polysaccharide, lentinan (a beta 1-3 glucan with beta 1-6 branches), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) was evaluated against established MBL-2 lymphoma and S908.D2 sarcoma at i.d. sites.
A rapid decrease in the number of tumor cells from S180 tumors was caused by several antitumor polysaccharides including the beta (1-3)glucans lentinan and TAK-N and a mannoglucan MGA, but not by those lacking antitumor activity.
The beta (1----3) glucan lentinan was tested for its capacity to increase the cytotoxic effect of murine peritoneal macrophages for human tumor cells in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs).
Heparanase activity correlates with the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Moreover, the anti-metastatic effect of non-anti-coagulant species of heparin and certain sulfated polysaccharides was attributed to their heparanase-inhibiting activity. We investigated the effect of a chemically sulfated polysaccharide (laminarin), consisting primarily of beta-1,3 glucan (sodium laminarin), and of synthetic phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides, primarily phosphorothioate homopolymer of cytidine (SdC28), on heparanase activity and tumor metastasis.
Distribution of 3H-labeled (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan([3H]SSG) obtained from the culture filtrate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, in various tissues in tumor-bearing mice was examined.
The action of carrageenan (CAR), a representative blocking reagent for phagocytes, on the antitumor effect and tissue distribution of highly branched (1-->3-beta-D-glucan, SSG, was examined. CAR inhibited the antitumor effect of intraperitoneally administered SSG only when applied before inoculation of the tumor, and had little effect when applied after tumor inoculation.
The effects of a highly branched beta-1,3-glucan, SSG, obtained from a culture filtrate of a fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, on the growth of syngeneic tumors and antitumor effector cells were examined.
The antitumor activity of a highly branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan, SSG, purified from the liquid culture filtrate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395 and its several derivatives were treated in ICR mice bearing Sarcoma 180 cells.
The antitumor activity of mouse polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) treated with a beta-1,3-D-glucan from Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes IFO 13140 (TAK-N) and its carboxymethylated derivative (CM-TAK) was investigated in vitro and in vivo.
We studied the tumor cytotoxicity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) obtained from bg/bg.
In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the tumoricidal activity of PMN induced by these immunomodulators and especially TAK.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined antitumor effect of aminated beta-1,3-D-glucan (AG) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in an experimental liver metastasis model.
Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.
The relatively simple chemistry and low toxicity of AG, together with its solubility in biological fluids, makes it a promising tool in experimental—and possibly clinical—tumor therapy.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Determined very low cytotoxicity, lentinan has over 1,600 mg/kg.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) A comprehensive overview of anti-tumor activities of lentinan, used in Japanese clinical practice since 1983.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Final proof that Dectin-1 is an important receptor mediating glucan actions.