Top 84 Articles About cancer and tumor biology

Grains
A low intake of whole grains is actually the leading dietary risk factor for death and disease in the USA. Few healthy grains are discussed in this chapter that can help prevent health problems like heart diseases, diabetes, and cancers.
Galactomannan, β-D-Glucan, and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Assays for the Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
All fungal biomarkers demonstrated highly variable sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values, and these were generally poor in both clinical settings. GM negative predictive values were high, ranging from 85-100% for screening and 70-100% in the diagnostic setting, but failure to identify non-Aspergillus molds limits its usefulness. Future work could focus on the usefulness of combinations of fungal biomarkers in pediatric cancer and HSCT.
Cellular and molecular effects of yeast probiotics on cancer.
This study reviews some of the health-beneficial effects of probiotic yeasts and their biological substances like folic acid and β-glucan on cancer and focuses on the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic yeasts such as influencing pathogenic bacteria, inactivation of carcinogenic compounds, especially those derived from food, improvement of intestinal barrier function, modulation of immune responses, antitoxic function, apoptosis, and anti-proliferative effects.
Yeast-Derived β-Glucan in Cancer: Novel Uses of a Traditional Therapeutic.
These new concepts, along with the emerging success of combinatorial approaches to cancer treatment involving β-glucan, suggest that β-glucan may play an essential role in future strategies to prevent and inhibit tumor growth. This review emphasizes the various characteristics of β-glucan, with an emphasis on fungal β-glucan, and highlights novel approaches of β-glucan in cancer therapy.
Effect of processing on barley β-glucan content, its molecular weight and extractability.
β-Glucan is the most unique polysaccharide of barley which is associated with numerous health benefits including reduction of cholesterol, manage post postprandial blood glucose levels and acts as an anti-cancerous agent. Since food grains including barley are consumed after processing and it may alter the solubility, molecular weight and extractability of β-glucan affecting the health benefits. Therefore, it is important to know the processing effects on β-glucan to confirm such health claims for barley. Most of the review papers published are focused on the health benefits of β-glucan. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive report is available on the effects of barley processing on β-glucan content, molecular weight and β-glucan extractability. The present article reviews the literature on processing effects on barley β-glucan.
Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health.
Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Durum Wheat: A Review.
The characterisation of specific plant materials and the release of the durum wheat genome sequences, together with the development of more accurate classes of DNA-based markers and consensus maps, have allowed the identification of important genes involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan biosynthesis. Many QTL region have been described to be involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan but none of them were associated to one of the cellulose synthase (CslF, CslH and CslJ) and glycosyl transferase genes (GT43, GT47 and GT61), which have been designated as responsible for the regulation and accumulation of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan, respectively, in different tissues types. Nevertheless, the isolation and characterisation of the CslF6 and CslH durum gene sequences have been reported together with the expression pattern in durum endosperm at different developmental stages, increasing the speed of the genetic gains. The control of these traits by several genes makes it interesting to incorporate beneficial alleles, which can contribute to the rise in non-starch polysaccharides content in durum kernels, into introgressed lines to obtain new durum genotypes with higher (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan. The additive effects of some designated genes in the QTL regions reported could be used to generate breeding plants though the marker assisted selection (MAS) approach.
Beta-glucans and cancer: The influence of inflammation and gut peptide.
This article reviews the effects of different enriched β-glucan food consumption on immune responses, inflammation, gut hormone and cancer. Gut hormones are influenced by enriched β-glucan food consumption and levels of such peptide as YY, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 in humans influence serum glucose concentration as well as innate and adaptive immunity. Cancer cell development is also regulated by obesity and glucose dishomeostasy that are influenced by β-glucan food consumption that in turn regulated gut hormones.
A critical review on the impacts of β-glucans on gut microbiota and human health.
The review was aimed to accumulate the evidence on types of β-glucans, their functional properties and the mechanism by how the β-glucans regulate the gut microbiota and human health. The various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, have been summarized, in particular, the changes happening upon the β-glucans supplementation on the gut microbiota. Overall, this review updates the recent studies on β-glucans and gut microbiota and also inputs the demanding questions to be addressed in β-glucans-microbiota research in the future.
Randomised phase III study of S-1 alone versus S-1 plus lentinan for unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer (JFMC36-0701).
Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points were time-to-treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), safety, quality of life (QOL), and biomarker. The percentages of LNT-binding monocytes in peripheral blood prior to treatment were analysed for the biomarker assessment. Results: One hundred and fifty-four and 155 patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT, respectively. The median OS was 13.8 and 9.9 months (P = 0.208), the median TTF was 4.3 and 2.6 months (P < 0.001), the ORR was 22.3% and 18.7% for the S-1 and S-1 plus LNT groups, respectively. The incidences of haematologic and non-haematologic adverse events were similar, and no significant changes in QOL scores were observed during the treatment in both groups. In a subpopulation of patients with LNT-binding monocytes ≥2%, patients who received more than two cycles of chemotherapy showed a longer survival time in the S-1 plus LNT group. Conclusions: OS did not improve and TTF was significantly worse in the S-1 plus LNT group as compared with the S-1-only group. This study showed no efficacy of LNT when combined with S-1 treatment in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer.
Ganoderma sinense polysaccharide: An adjunctive drug used for cancer treatment.
Both basic and preclinical studies showed that GSP has antitumor, antioxidant, anticytopenia, and unique mushroom-poison detoxification properties that are different from that of GLPS. Our goal is to provide a molecular picture that would allow in-depth evaluation of GSP as one of few glycan-based drugs that has been used as an immunomodulatory adjunctive drug during cancer therapy.
A randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of BTH1677 in combination with bevacizumab, carboplatin, and paclitaxel in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Results: ORR was higher in the BTH1677 vs Control arm but the difference between groups was not statistically significant (60.4% vs 43.5%; P = .2096). All other clinical endpoints also favored the BTH1677 arm but none statistically differed between arms. PK was consistent with previous studies. Although a higher incidence of Grade 3/4 AEs occurred in the BTH1677 vs Control arm (93.2% vs 66.7%), no unexpected AEs were observed. Serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs were lower in the BTH1677 vs Control arm. Conclusions: Improvements in tumor assessments and survival were observed with BTH1677/bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel compared with control treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
The Complexity of Fungal β-Glucan in Health and Disease: Effects on the Mononuclear Phagocyte System.
Several experimental evidences have demonstrated a crucial role for β-glucan in the host–pathogen interaction during infections. Moreover, considerable efforts have been made to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of β-glucan in fungal pathogenesis as well as how it promotes a phagocytic-mediated immune response. Similarly, administration of fungal β-glucan is well known to stimulate the immune system and boost resistance to various infectious diseases and cancers, highlighting the multifaceted role of this molecule (Figure ​(Figure1).1). However, although many in vivo studies have shown a beneficial effect of the β-glucans isolated from different sources, a comprehensive investigation of the mechanism of action is still lacking. In addition, the absence of detailed methodology on experimentation, β-glucan molecules source and purity reached render interpretation of the various results very complex. As such, discrepancies observed in the different studies are mainly related to the choice of purified components being used. In addition, unfortunately only few human studies are available and most of them have not been followed up with success. Hence, the possibility for clinical application of β-glucan should be considered with caution and will require further investigation. Future studies need to deeply characterize how β-glucans with different structure and molecular weight interact with each receptor and which specific signaling pathways are triggered. Moreover, providing details on the procedure and composition of the carbohydrate molecule under investigation remains crucial. An understanding should be made in the near future to use a common standardized β-glucan molecule with described biochemical properties. With such a common control, we might endeavor a rational use of this promising molecule in the future as an adjuvant or therapeutic agent.
Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review.
The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully understood and even the recommendation on the dose of different dietary NSPs intake among different age groups needs to be studied.
Cathepsin D--many functions of one aspartic protease.
For years, it has been held that cathepsin D (CD) is involved in rather non-specific protein degradation in a strongly acidic milieu of lysosomes. Studies with CD knock-out mice revealed that CD is not necessary for embryonal development, but it is indispensable for postnatal tissue homeostasis
Nanoplatform Constructed from a β-Glucan and Polydeoxyadenylic Acid for Cancer Chemotherapy and Imaging.
A nanoplatform carrying doxorubicin (Dox) for cancer therapy and a dye for imaging was developed based on a natural triple helix β-glucan (t-LNT) and polydeoxyadenylic acid (poly(dA)). The t-LNT-Dox conjugates were prepared through Schiff-base reaction between the aldehyde group in the oxidized t-LNT and the amino group of Dox, the single chains (s-LNT-Dox) of which interacted with the poly(dA)-dye to form a composite s-LNT-Dox/poly(dA)-dye through hydrogen bonding between s-LNT and poly(dA).
Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health: a review of current evidence and policy.
Dietary fibre comprises many different, mainly plant-based, compounds that are not fully digested in the human gut. Insoluble fibres include cellulose, hemi-celluloses and lignin and soluble fibres include pectins, β-glucan and hydro-colloids. In the UK, the daily recommended amount has increased to 30 g but only 13 % of men and 4 % of women meet this recommendation.
Alternating consumption of β-glucan and quercetin reduces mortality in mice with colorectal cancer.
The current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and are not well supported. Beta-glucan or quercetin in a diet can alleviate colorectal cancer (CRC) by regulating the gut microbiota and related genes, but the effects of alternating their consumption for routine ingestion during CRC occurrence remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of alternating the consumption of β-glucan and quercetin for routine ingestion on CRC development in mice.
β1,3-glucan anticancer efficacies and synergies: A review
β1,3-glucans from fungi, cereals, seaweeds and bacteria have been shown to possess favourable biological and anti-carcinogenic activities including upregulation of phagocytosis, cytokine production enhancement, superoxide and nitrite production; antibody secretion and stimulation of signalling pathways associated with proto-oncogene expression.
Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells
When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b.
Antitumor effect of a peptideglucan preparation extracted from Agaricus blazei in a doublegrafted tumor system in mice.
The antitumor effect of extracts obtained from the fruit body of Agaricus blazei Murill was examined in a double-grafted tumor system, in which BALB/c mice received simultaneous intradermal injections of Meth-A tumor cells in both the right (10(6) cells) and left flank (2 x 10(5) cells), and were then injected with 5 mg of extracts of A. blazei in the right tumor on days 3, 4 and 5.
Structure of a β-glucan from Grifola frondosa and its antitumoreffects by activating Dectin-1/Syk/NF-kB signaling.
A soluble homogeneous β-glucan, GFPBW1, with a molecular mass of 300 kDa was purified from the fraction of the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa extracted with 5% NaOH. Using various methods, such as infrared spectroscopy, NMR, methylation and monosaccharide composition analysis, its structure was determined to be a β-D-(1-3)-linked glucan backbone with a single β-D-(1-6)-linked glucopyranosyl residue branched at C-6 on every third residue.
Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity
In this paper, we review existing data on the mechanism of whole mushrooms and isolated mushroom compounds, in particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and the means by which they modulate the immune system and potentially exert tumor-inhibitory effects.
Conformation-dependent change in antitumor activity of linear and branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucans on the basis of conformational elucidation by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
The antitumor activity of (1----3)-beta-D-glucans was tested in order to clarify its conformation-dependent response together with conformational elucidation by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy. It was shown that the following three conformations, single chain, single helix and triple helix, are readily distinguished by the high-resolution solid-state 13C-NMR method.
Relationship between conformation and biological response for (1----3)-beta-D-glucans in the activation of coagulation factor G from limulus amebocyte lysate and host-mediated antitumor activity. Demonstration of single-helix conformation as a stimulant
The relationship between the conformation of (1----3)-beta-D-glucans in gel or hydrated form and the stimulation of two types of biological responses, namely, activation of coagulation Factor G from limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and host-mediated antitumor activity was examined.
Inhibition of heparanase activity and tumor metastasis by laminarin sulfate and synthetic phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides
Heparanase activity correlates with the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Moreover, the anti-metastatic effect of non-anti-coagulant species of heparin and certain sulfated polysaccharides was attributed to their heparanase-inhibiting activity. We investigated the effect of a chemically sulfated polysaccharide (laminarin), consisting primarily of beta-1,3 glucan (sodium laminarin), and of synthetic phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides, primarily phosphorothioate homopolymer of cytidine (SdC28), on heparanase activity and tumor metastasis.
Modulation of the antitumor effect and tissue distribution of highly branched (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, SSG, by carrageenan
The action of carrageenan (CAR), a representative blocking reagent for phagocytes, on the antitumor effect and tissue distribution of highly branched (1-->3-beta-D-glucan, SSG, was examined. CAR inhibited the antitumor effect of intraperitoneally administered SSG only when applied before inoculation of the tumor, and had little effect when applied after tumor inoculation.