Top 58 Articles About Immunomodulatory Effects
This review aims at presenting the newly described aspect of memory in innate immunity with an emphasis on the historically fungal mediated one, covering the known molecular mechanisms associated with training. In addition, the review uncovers the numerous non-specific effect that β-glucans trigger in the context of infectious diseases and septicaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer.
In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation.
Together with chitin, the beta-glucans are components of mycetes' cell walls. A high level of biological efficiency has been found in beta-glucans, especially beta-1,3-D-glucans and beta-1,6-D-glucans isolated from some basidiomycetes. (Biological efficiency refers to the relative ability of beta-glucans to promote a desired response, for example to induce leukocyte activation and to produce inflammatory mediators.) These polysaccharides increase the number of Th1 lymphocytes, which help protect organisms against allergic reactions. A number of beta-glucans, for example pleuran from Oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms or lentinan from Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms, have shown marked anticarcinogenic activity. In addition to having an immunity-stimulating effect, beta-glucans may participate in physiological processes related to the metabolism of fats in the human body. Their application results in a decrease in the total cholesterol content in blood and may also contribute to reductions in body weight.
The characterisation of specific plant materials and the release of the durum wheat genome sequences, together with the development of more accurate classes of DNA-based markers and consensus maps, have allowed the identification of important genes involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan biosynthesis. Many QTL region have been described to be involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan but none of them were associated to one of the cellulose synthase (CslF, CslH and CslJ) and glycosyl transferase genes (GT43, GT47 and GT61), which have been designated as responsible for the regulation and accumulation of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan, respectively, in different tissues types. Nevertheless, the isolation and characterisation of the CslF6 and CslH durum gene sequences have been reported together with the expression pattern in durum endosperm at different developmental stages, increasing the speed of the genetic gains. The control of these traits by several genes makes it interesting to incorporate beneficial alleles, which can contribute to the rise in non-starch polysaccharides content in durum kernels, into introgressed lines to obtain new durum genotypes with higher (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan. The additive effects of some designated genes in the QTL regions reported could be used to generate breeding plants though the marker assisted selection (MAS) approach.
This article reviews the effects of different enriched β-glucan food consumption on immune responses, inflammation, gut hormone and cancer. Gut hormones are influenced by enriched β-glucan food consumption and levels of such peptide as YY, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 in humans influence serum glucose concentration as well as innate and adaptive immunity. Cancer cell development is also regulated by obesity and glucose dishomeostasy that are influenced by β-glucan food consumption that in turn regulated gut hormones.
The review was aimed to accumulate the evidence on types of β-glucans, their functional properties and the mechanism by how the β-glucans regulate the gut microbiota and human health. The various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, have been summarized, in particular, the changes happening upon the β-glucans supplementation on the gut microbiota. Overall, this review updates the recent studies on β-glucans and gut microbiota and also inputs the demanding questions to be addressed in β-glucans-microbiota research in the future.
This review provides a brief overview on laminarin characteristics, modification strategies and highlights its pivotal biomedical applications.
Several experimental evidences have demonstrated a crucial role for β-glucan in the host–pathogen interaction during infections. Moreover, considerable efforts have been made to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of β-glucan in fungal pathogenesis as well as how it promotes a phagocytic-mediated immune response. Similarly, administration of fungal β-glucan is well known to stimulate the immune system and boost resistance to various infectious diseases and cancers, highlighting the multifaceted role of this molecule (Figure (Figure1).1). However, although many in vivo studies have shown a beneficial effect of the β-glucans isolated from different sources, a comprehensive investigation of the mechanism of action is still lacking. In addition, the absence of detailed methodology on experimentation, β-glucan molecules source and purity reached render interpretation of the various results very complex. As such, discrepancies observed in the different studies are mainly related to the choice of purified components being used. In addition, unfortunately only few human studies are available and most of them have not been followed up with success. Hence, the possibility for clinical application of β-glucan should be considered with caution and will require further investigation. Future studies need to deeply characterize how β-glucans with different structure and molecular weight interact with each receptor and which specific signaling pathways are triggered. Moreover, providing details on the procedure and composition of the carbohydrate molecule under investigation remains crucial. An understanding should be made in the near future to use a common standardized β-glucan molecule with described biochemical properties. With such a common control, we might endeavor a rational use of this promising molecule in the future as an adjuvant or therapeutic agent.
The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully understood and even the recommendation on the dose of different dietary NSPs intake among different age groups needs to be studied.
For years, it has been held that cathepsin D (CD) is involved in rather non-specific protein degradation in a strongly acidic milieu of lysosomes. Studies with CD knock-out mice revealed that CD is not necessary for embryonal development, but it is indispensable for postnatal tissue homeostasis
This review focused on the biological properties of glucan and glucomannan.
Pleurotus eryngii is recognized for its prominent nutritional and medicinal value. In our study, we tested the effect of glucans on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of TNF-α. We demonstrated that glucan extracts are more effective than mill mushroom preparations.
Cancer is considered a fetal disease caused by uncontrolled proliferation and progression of abnormal cells. The most efficient cancer therapies suppress tumor growth, prevent progression and metastasis, and are minimally toxic to normal cells. Natural compounds have shown a variety of chemo-protective effects alone or in combination with standard cancer therapies.
The prevalence of obesity and related disorders has vastly increased throughout the world and prevention of such circumstances thus represents a major challenge. Here, it has been shown that one protein-bound β-glucan (PBG) from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor can be a potent anti-obesity component.
Imprime PGG (Imprime) is an i.v. administered, yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucan in clinical development with checkpoint inhibitors. Imprime-mediated innate immune activation requires immune complex formation with naturally occurring IgG anti-β glucan Abs (ABA).
A new supramolecular polysaccharide complex, comprising a functionalised coumarin tag featuring a boronic acid and β-d-glucan (a natural product extract from barley, Hordeum Vulgare) was assembled based on the ability of the boronate motif to specifically recognise and bind to 1,2- or 1,3-diols in water.
MS4A4A is a tetraspan molecule selectively expressed in macrophages during differentiation and polarization, essential for dectin-1-dependent activation of NK cell-mediated resistance to metastasis.
In the present study, we further explored its antitumor effects in vivo as an immune stimulator.
The initial host response to fungal pathogen invasion is critical to infection establishment and outcome. However, the diversity of leukocyte-pathogen interactions is only recently being appreciated. We describe a new form of interleukocyte conidial exchange called "shuttling."
A polysaccharide-enriched extract obtained from Lentinula edodes was submitted to several purification steps to separate three different D-glucans with β-(1→6), β-(1→3),(1→6) and α-(1→3) linkages, being characterized through GC-MS, FT-IR, NMR, SEC and colorimetric/fluorimetric determinations.
Here, we identify Dectin-1 as a crucial tolerogenic receptor binding with nanomolar affinity to the core domain of several annexins (annexin A1, A5, and A13) exposed on ACs. Annexins bind to Dectin-1 on a site distinct from the interaction site of pathogen-derived β-glucans.
β-glucans represent a heterogeneous group of naturally occurring and biologically active polysaccharides found in many kinds of edible mushrooms, baker's yeast, cereals and seaweeds, whose health-promoting effects have been known since ancient times. These compounds can be taken orally as food supplements or as part of daily diets, and are safe to use, nonimmunogenic and well tolerated.
Macrophages have been linked to tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and treatment resistance. However, the transcriptional regulation of macrophages driving the protumor function remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Maf is a critical controller for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and function in cancer. c-Maf controls many M2-related genes and has direct binding sites within a conserved noncoding sequence of the Csf-1r gene and promotes M2-like macrophage–mediated T cell suppression and tumor progression. c-Maf also serves as a metabolic checkpoint regulating the TCA cycle and UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis, thus promoting M2-like macrophage polarization and activation. Additionally, c-Maf is highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulates TAM immunosuppressive function. Deletion of c-Maf specifically in myeloid cells results in reduced tumor burden with enhanced antitumor T cell immunity. Inhibition of c-Maf partly overcomes resistance to anti–PD-1 therapy in a subcutaneous LLC tumor model. Similarly, c-Maf is expressed in human M2 and tumor-infiltrating macrophages/monocytes as well as circulating monocytes of human non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and critically regulates their immunosuppressive activity. The natural compound β-glucan downregulates c-Maf expression on macrophages, leading to enhanced antitumor immunity in mice. These findings establish a paradigm for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and transcriptional regulation by c-Maf and suggest that c-Maf is a potential target for effective tumor immunotherapy.
Grifola frondosa is an edible and medicinal mushroom with great nutritional values and bioactivities. In the present study, a soluble homogeneous β-glucan, GFPS, with high molecular mass of 5.42 × 106 Da was purified from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa using 5% cold NaOH.
Mouse leukocyte CR3 (Mac-1, alphaMbeta2 integrin) was shown to function as a receptor for beta-glucans in the same way as human CR3.
We briefly review the characteristics of the glucans from mycelial walls as modulators of the immunity and their possible use as antitumor treatments.
This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Immunopotentiation effected by binding of a (1→3)-β-glucan molecule or particle probably includes activation of cytotoxic macrophages, helper T cells, and NK cells, promotion of T cell differentiation, and activation of the alternative complement pathway.
Taken together, these findings indicate that Hsp70 inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation by binding TRAF6 and preventing its ubiquitination, and results in inhibition of inflammatory mediator production, which provides a new insight for analyzing the effects of Hsp70 on LPS-triggered inflammatory signal transduction pathways.
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major zoonotic and intracellular pathogen. Different strategies have been developed to prevent the S. Enteritidis infection. The beta-1,3-1,6-glucan of Schizophyllum commune was used as an immunological booster to determine the minimal dietary level of beta-glucan that would restrict S. Enteritidis infection through the effects of beta-glucan on the activity of macrophages and direct physical protection of the intestine.
To test possible dietary immune modulators, 32 crossbred male pigs were given 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pigs/treatment): control, Saccharomyces cerevisiae with beta-glucan (Energy Plus, Natural Chem Industries LTD, Houston, TX; 0.312 g/kg of BW, 2.5% of diet), vitamin C (Stay C 35, DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Prisippany, NJ; 75 ppm), or beta-glucan plus vitamin C together (combination; 0.312 g/kg of BW and 75 ppm, respectively).
This study was carried out to assess the safety and efficacy of a combination of lentinan, an immune modulator, and didanosine (ddI) in a controlled study in HIV positive patients with CD4 levels of 200-500 cells/mm3.
It is widely known that β-glucans and probiotic bacteria are good immunostimulants for fish.
The objective of the study was to determine the immunostimulatory effect of β-(1,3/1,6)-D-glucan in puppies.
In this review, we describe how the key molecules related to the expression of the immunomodulating activities of beta-glucan were identified, and how the response to beta-glucan is controlled.
Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation.
Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in vitro and in vivo.
Coriolus versicolor has been known to be an immune stimulator effects.
The preventive effect of an immunopotentiator, beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan, on the development of diabetes and insulitis was studied in BB rats.
The effects of beta-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans were observed on acute xylene-induced inflammation.
Glucans, or polymers of D-glucose linked by (1→3)-β and (1→6)-β glycosidic linkages are the common polysaccharides of the fungal cell wall. They are usually located in the inner part of the wall and play the role of skeletal polysaccharide contributing to the shape and rigidity of the cell wall.
Fungal cell wall glucans nonspecifically stimulate various aspects of innate immunity. Glucans are thought to mediate their effects via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils, and NK cells. There have been no reports of glucan receptors on nonimmune cells. We investigated the binding of a water-soluble glucan in primary cultures of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF).
In this paper, we review existing data on the mechanism of whole mushrooms and isolated mushroom compounds, in particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and the means by which they modulate the immune system and potentially exert tumor-inhibitory effects.
The early cellular responses to antitumor immunomodulators and conventional inducers, especially the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) responses, were examined in the peritoneal cavity of mice to investigate their effect on primary defense mechanisms.
Lymphokine-activated killer activity in vivo (endogenous LAK activity) was found to be augmented by combined administration of lentinan, a beta (1-3) glucan with beta-1,6 branches, and interleukin 2 (IL-2).
A rapid decrease in the number of tumor cells from S180 tumors was caused by several antitumor polysaccharides including the beta (1-3)glucans lentinan and TAK-N and a mannoglucan MGA, but not by those lacking antitumor activity.
Macrophages obtained from animals treated with beta-1,3-D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads were greatly stimulated, as judged by morphology, esterase release, and cytostatic effect on L-929 tumour cells in vitro.
In this study, we examined the effect of systemic administration of SSG, a soluble highly branched (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan obtained from a fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, on pulmonary immune responses in mice.
Orally administered SSG, a beta-1,3-glucan obtained from the culture filtrate of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, was examined for effects on immune responses in mice.