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A low intake of whole grains is actually the leading dietary risk factor for death and disease in the USA. Few healthy grains are discussed in this chapter that can help prevent health problems like heart diseases, diabetes, and cancers.
All fungal biomarkers demonstrated highly variable sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values, and these were generally poor in both clinical settings. GM negative predictive values were high, ranging from 85-100% for screening and 70-100% in the diagnostic setting, but failure to identify non-Aspergillus molds limits its usefulness. Future work could focus on the usefulness of combinations of fungal biomarkers in pediatric cancer and HSCT.
This study reviews some of the health-beneficial effects of probiotic yeasts and their biological substances like folic acid and β-glucan on cancer and focuses on the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic yeasts such as influencing pathogenic bacteria, inactivation of carcinogenic compounds, especially those derived from food, improvement of intestinal barrier function, modulation of immune responses, antitoxic function, apoptosis, and anti-proliferative effects.
These new concepts, along with the emerging success of combinatorial approaches to cancer treatment involving β-glucan, suggest that β-glucan may play an essential role in future strategies to prevent and inhibit tumor growth. This review emphasizes the various characteristics of β-glucan, with an emphasis on fungal β-glucan, and highlights novel approaches of β-glucan in cancer therapy.
Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described.
Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly β-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition.
In this article, the results of PSP-related preclinical and clinical studies conducted in China from over 40 independent studies during the past 40 years based on searching the Chinese VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases are presented. Its immunomodulatory and anti-tumor molecular mechanisms are also summarized. PSP activates immune cells, increases the expressions of cytokines and chemokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), histamine, and prostaglandin E, enhances dendritic and T-cell infiltration into tumors, and ameliorates the adverse events associated with chemotherapy. The clinical studies support PSP being a potential immunotherapeutic. However, the complicated chemical and multiple pharmacological properties of PSP need to be investigated further.
Beta-glucans (β-glucans), naturally occurring polysaccharides, are present as constituents of the cell wall of cereal grains, mushrooms, algae, or microbes including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Since Pillemer et al. first prepared and investigated zymosan in the 1940s and others followed with the investigation of β-glucans in the 1960s and 1970s, researchers have well established the significant role of β-glucans on the immune system relative to cancer treatment, infection immunity, and restoration of damaged bone marrow. However, information on their biological role in anti-metastatic activity remains limited. As an immunomodulating agent, β-glucan acts through the activation of innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells. This activation triggers the responses of adaptive immune cells such as CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells and B cells, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. Reports have shown that β-glucans exert multiple effects on cancer cells and cancer prevention. However the mechanisms of their actions appear complex due to differences in source, chemical structure, insufficiently defined preparation, and molecular weight, hence the inconsistent and often contradictory results obtained. This review is focused on the potential of β-glucans as anti-metastatic agents and the known mechanisms underlying their biological effects.
Conclusions BTH1677 combined with cetuximab/carboplatin/paclitaxel was well tolerated and improved ORR as first-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC. Future patient selection by biomarker status may further improve efficacy
The importance of assessing risk and using non-culture-based diagnostics for invasive fungal disease is clear. Several methods have been evaluated and validated for clinical use including galactomannan, beta-d-glucan, lateral flow technology, T2 magnetic resonance, PCR and others. Non-culture-based biomarkers provide more reliable negative than positive predictive values. When the prevalence of disease is higher than 15%, negative test results exclude the diagnosis, while positive test results include the diagnosis. Clinicians and laboratories need to consider when a test is being requested for screening (when a patient is at risk for invasive fungal disease) as opposed to diagnosis (in which there is a high clinical suspicion of an invasive fungal disease), which will have a substantially higher pre-test probability. Finally, combinations of these tests may provide the greatest benefit in establishing a diagnosis of invasive fungal disease.
β-Glucan is the most unique polysaccharide of barley which is associated with numerous health benefits including reduction of cholesterol, manage post postprandial blood glucose levels and acts as an anti-cancerous agent. Since food grains including barley are consumed after processing and it may alter the solubility, molecular weight and extractability of β-glucan affecting the health benefits. Therefore, it is important to know the processing effects on β-glucan to confirm such health claims for barley. Most of the review papers published are focused on the health benefits of β-glucan. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive report is available on the effects of barley processing on β-glucan content, molecular weight and β-glucan extractability. The present article reviews the literature on processing effects on barley β-glucan.
This review aims at presenting the newly described aspect of memory in innate immunity with an emphasis on the historically fungal mediated one, covering the known molecular mechanisms associated with training. In addition, the review uncovers the numerous non-specific effect that β-glucans trigger in the context of infectious diseases and septicaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
We screened 12,426 references and identified 189 studies for full-text review. Nineteen studies were included in the final meta-analysis. There was moderate heterogeneity between studies. Nine studies had a high risk of bias, which significantly elevated the overall specificity estimate. Restricting to only low-bias studies, the sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 63%, respectively. Conclusions: The overall sensitivity and specificity of Fungitell as a diagnostic test for IFI is moderate, and there is substantial heterogeneity between studies. Limiting studies to only low-bias risk reduced heterogeneity but also lowered the overall specificity estimate.
Mycotherapy is defined as the study of the use of extracts and compounds obtained from mushrooms as medicines or health-promoting agents. The present review updates the recent findings on anticancer/antitumor agents derived from mushroom extracts and their metabolites. The increasing number of studies in the past few years revealed mushroom extracts as potent antitumor agents. Also, numerous studies were conducted on bioactive compounds isolated from mushrooms reporting the heteropolysaccharides, β-glucans, α-glucans, proteins, complexes of polysaccharides with proteins, fatty acids, nucleoside antagonists, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes, lanostanoids, sterols and phenolic acids as promising antitumor agents. Also, molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines are discussed in this review. Findings with Antrodia camphorata and Ganoderma lucidium extracts and isolated compounds are presented, as being the most deeply studied previously.
Overall, these data indicate that WGP may be a potent immune modulator of MDSC suppressive function and differentiation in cancer.
In patients with cancer (the intended patient population for the CRUKD/14/001 trial), possible immunostimulatory and/or direct anti-tumour effects of beta-glucan contaminants would, if anything, be considered desirable from a patient benefit perspective. However, in this first-in man, first-in-class, proof-of-concept trial, it is important to ensure that any anti-tumour efficacy observed is due to therapeutic MOv18 IgE itself. Moreover, for biotherapeutic agents developed for non-oncology indications, immunostimulatory effects would not necessarily be desirable. Based on currently available data, a limit of 10 ng/mg (or 500 ng total dose) of beta-glucans seems unlikely to provoke any clinically significant immunological effects and this level may be acceptable for medicinal agents.
In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation.
We conclude that PGG beta glucan, alemtuzumab and rituximab treatment is tolerable and results in a high complete response rate.
Recently, combinations of such immunostimulatory or immunomodulatory adjuvants have shown superior efficacy over their singular use, suggesting that seeking optimal combinations of the currently available or well-characterized adjuvants may provide a better chance for the development of novel adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Description of the possible use of glucan as vaccine adjuvant, leading to subsequent use of glucan as vaccine carrier.
Together with chitin, the beta-glucans are components of mycetes' cell walls. A high level of biological efficiency has been found in beta-glucans, especially beta-1,3-D-glucans and beta-1,6-D-glucans isolated from some basidiomycetes. (Biological efficiency refers to the relative ability of beta-glucans to promote a desired response, for example to induce leukocyte activation and to produce inflammatory mediators.) These polysaccharides increase the number of Th1 lymphocytes, which help protect organisms against allergic reactions. A number of beta-glucans, for example pleuran from Oyster (Pleurotus spp.) mushrooms or lentinan from Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms, have shown marked anticarcinogenic activity. In addition to having an immunity-stimulating effect, beta-glucans may participate in physiological processes related to the metabolism of fats in the human body. Their application results in a decrease in the total cholesterol content in blood and may also contribute to reductions in body weight.
The characterisation of specific plant materials and the release of the durum wheat genome sequences, together with the development of more accurate classes of DNA-based markers and consensus maps, have allowed the identification of important genes involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan biosynthesis. Many QTL region have been described to be involved in the control of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan but none of them were associated to one of the cellulose synthase (CslF, CslH and CslJ) and glycosyl transferase genes (GT43, GT47 and GT61), which have been designated as responsible for the regulation and accumulation of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan, respectively, in different tissues types. Nevertheless, the isolation and characterisation of the CslF6 and CslH durum gene sequences have been reported together with the expression pattern in durum endosperm at different developmental stages, increasing the speed of the genetic gains. The control of these traits by several genes makes it interesting to incorporate beneficial alleles, which can contribute to the rise in non-starch polysaccharides content in durum kernels, into introgressed lines to obtain new durum genotypes with higher (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and arabinoxylan. The additive effects of some designated genes in the QTL regions reported could be used to generate breeding plants though the marker assisted selection (MAS) approach.
Traditional herbal medicine has provided natural remedies against cancers and many age-related inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Modern drug discovery techniques have revealed several active ingredients and their medicinal targets have been characterized. Concurrently, there has been great progress in understanding the pathological mechanisms underpinning cancers and inflammatory diseases. These studies have demonstrated that immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have a crucial role in the immune escape of cancer cells thus promoting tumor growth. Inflammatory factors stimulate the recruitment, expansion, and activation of MDSCs in tumors and inflamed tissues. The immunosuppression generated by MDSCs has an important role in the resolution of acute inflammation but in chronic inflammatory disorders, the activation of MDSCs suppresses the innate and adaptive immune responses thus aggravating the disease processes in association with tumors, chronic infections, and many degenerative diseases. Currently, MDSCs are important drug discovery targets in cancers and chronic inflammatory diseases. Interestingly, there are promising reports that certain phytochemicals can function as potent inhibitors of the immunosuppressive MDSCs that could partially explain the therapeutic benefits of herbal medicine. We will briefly describe the immune suppressive functions of MDSCs in cancers and age-related inflammatory diseases and then review in detail the chemically characterized phytochemicals of different herbal categories, e.g. flavonoids, terpenoids, retinoids, curcumins, and β-glucans, which possess the MDSC-dependent antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties.
This article reviews the effects of different enriched β-glucan food consumption on immune responses, inflammation, gut hormone and cancer. Gut hormones are influenced by enriched β-glucan food consumption and levels of such peptide as YY, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 in humans influence serum glucose concentration as well as innate and adaptive immunity. Cancer cell development is also regulated by obesity and glucose dishomeostasy that are influenced by β-glucan food consumption that in turn regulated gut hormones.
β-glucans, a group of polysaccharides exist in many organism species such as mushrooms, yeasts, oats, barley, seaweed, but not mammalians, have a variety of biological activities and applications in drugs and other healthcare products. In recent years, β-glucans have been studied as adjuvants in anti-infection vaccines as well as immunomodulators in anti-cancer immunotherapy. β-glucans can regulate immune responses when administered alone and can connect innate and adaptive immunity to improve immunogenicity of vaccines. When β-glucans act as immunostimulants or adjuvants, a set of receptors have been revealed to recognize β-glucans, including dectin-1, complement receptor 3 (CR3), CD5, lactosylceramide, and so on. Therefore, this review is mainly focused on the application of β-glucans as immune adjuvants, the receptors of β-glucans, as well as their structure and activity relationship which will benefit future research of β-glucans.
β-glucans belong to a group of polysaccharides located in the cell wall of bacteria, fungi including mushrooms, as well as cereals such as barley and oats. All β-glucans are glucose polymers linked together by a (β 1-3) linear β-glycosidic chain core and they differ by their length and branching structures. They are considered biological response modifiers with immunomodulatory and health beneficial effects including anticancer properties. Few studies using purified β- glucans were performed, but their anticancer potential was demonstrated mainly through studies using extracts from mushrooms, yeast or other sources which contain β-glucan as a key component. Their anticancer effects were demonstrated mainly in in vitro and in vivo experimental systems but fewer studies from human populations are available. β-glucans have been used as adjuvant therapy in clinical trials, mainly in the Far East, with a positive effect on patients'survival and quality of life. The mechanism of action is suggested to be through its stimulation of the immune system. This review focuses on human studies; clinical trials and epidemiological data assessing the efficacy and safety of mushroom-derived β- glucans in cancer treatment and prevention. The potential direct effects of β-glucans on cancer cells are also described.
Emerging data suggest that the TME can be actively manipulated by β-glucans and their related nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of conditioning TME using β-glucan and β-glucan-based nanoparticles, and how this strategy enables future design of optimal combination cancer immunotherapies.
The potential of natural substances with immunotherapeutic properties has long been studied. β-glucans, a cell wall component of certain bacteria and fungi, potentiate the immune system against microbes and toxic substances. Moreover, β-glucans are known to exhibit direct anticancer effects and can suppress cancer proliferation through immunomodulatory pathways. Numerous researchers are now dedicated to using β-glucans as a therapy for lung cancer. In the present attempt, we have reviewed the studies addressing therapeutic effects of β-glucans in primary and metastatic lung cancer published in the time period of 1991-2016.
This review summarizes timely reports with respect to absorption, trafficking and immune stimulatory effects of β-glucans, particularly in relation to innate immune cells. Furthermore, we list effects toward well-being and immune functions in healthy subjects as well as cancer patients treated with orally administered β-glucans, extended with effects of β-glucan treatments in mouse cancer models. Expert opinion: Beta-glucans, when present in food and following uptake in the proximal gut, stimulate immune cells present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and initiate highly conserved pro-inflammatory pathways. When tested in mouse cancer models, β-glucans result in better control of tumor growth and shift the TME toward a T cell-sensitive environment. Along these lines, we advocate that intake of β-glucans provides an accessible and immune-potentiating adjuvant when combined with adoptive T-cell treatments of cancer.
In the Phase 1a single-dosing study, subjects were randomized (3:1 per cohort) to a single intravenous (i.v.) infusion of BTH1677 at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg or placebo, respectively. In the Phase 1b multi-dosing study, subjects were randomized (3:1 per cohort) to 7 daily i.v. infusions of BTH1677 at 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg or placebo, respectively. Safety and PK non-compartmental analyses were performed. Results: Thirty-six subjects (N = 24 Phase 1a; N = 12 Phase 1b) were randomized to treatment. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. Mild or moderate adverse events (AEs) occurred in 67% of BTH1677-treated subjects in both studies. Treatment-related AEs (occurring in ≥10% of subjects) included dyspnea, flushing, headache, nausea, paraesthesia, and rash in Phase 1a and conjunctivitis and headache in Phase 1b. BTH1677 serum concentration was linear with dose. Clearance, serum elimination half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) were BTH1677 dose-independent. In Phase 1b, area under the curve, t1/2, and Vss values were larger at steady state on days 6-30 versus day 0. Conclusions: BTH1677 was well tolerated after single doses up to 6 mg/kg and after 7 daily doses up to 4 mg/kg.
This study was sought to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant lentinan combined with chemotherapy for advanced cancer. A meta-analysis of published prospective controlled trials investigating the effects of lentinan for kinds of advanced cancer was performed. Sensitivity analysis, inverted funnel plots, and trial sequence analysis were conducted to explore the reliability and stability of results. Seventeen clinical studies were identified containing 1423 patients. Twelve trials included gastrointestinal cancer (GIC), three trials included lung cancer (LC), and two trials included the two cancers. There was a increase in survival rate in 1 year (risk ratios [RR], 1.46, P = 0.001) and overall response rate including both complete and partial response (RR, 1.28, P = 0.005). There was also a reduction in progressive disease (RR, 0.57, P = 0.0005), nonsevere adverse events (RR, 0.88, P = 0.004), and severe adverse events (RR, 0.73, P = 0.007). Similar results were shown in the two subgroups of GIC and LC. Limited trials reported the data of median overall survival and time to treatment failure, and the data were insufficient for quantitative analysis, and no significant difference were found in 2-year survival rate. Adjuvant lentinan used with chemotherapy achieved improvements in 1-year survival rate, response rate, and adverse events in advanced cancer. The effect seemed to be similar irrespective of cancer type. However, its sustained efficacy on survival was still unclear.
Recent studies with focusing on their influence on cytotoxic and helper T cells, APCs, inflammatory pathways, and oxidative burst (by using reactive oxygen species to destroy cells.) have revealed that they can also have some anti-cancer properties. Even so the main mechanisms in which these glucans function are inducing the APCs and T cells and thereby activating the anti-tumor immune system and subverting the suppressors of this immune system by stimulating the differentiation of MDSCs. It is also worth to mention that a study represented an antioxidant effect of oat beta-glucans  but further investigations are needed to prove their role in cancer prevention by scavenging free radicals. Likewise, a mAB-based therapy which is a medical progression into a new era of cancer treatment is only effective on tumor cells using adjuvant beta-glucans. The mentioned evidences have shown that sizofiran, zymosan, curdlan, PBG, and other beta-glucans can be employed in the prevention or treatment of cervical cancer. Taken together, it seems that further investigations are needed on beta-glucans to prove their toxicity on cervical cancer cells, non-toxicity on normal cells, and their ability for carrying drugs to the cancer site. We suggest that some beta-glucans such as pleuran, chrysolaminarian, laminarin, and zymosan which are not properly taken into consideration in the cervical cancer therapy field, might be convenient candidates for their characteristics such as anti-inflammatory activities and anti-oxidant impacts (Fig. 1). Moreover, further studies on delivering chemotherapeutic drugs by schizophyllan and curdlan might give new insight into cervical cancer therapy. More explorations on the influence of beta-glucans on the CR3 receptor cervical cancer cells would open new horizons for replacing dangerous common therapies with non-toxic treatments. In the prevention point of view, there is a need for more researches on the mechanisms by which beta-glucans influence HPV infection and also a need for more researches on delivering HPV proteins by beta-glucans as a vaccine.
β-Glucans have been investigated for their ability to protect against infection and cancer and more recently for their therapeutic potential when combined with cancer therapy. Their immune modulating effects are attributed to the ability to bind to pattern recognition receptors including complement receptor 3, scavenger receptors, lactosylceramide, and dectin-1 that results in activation of different aspects of the immune response depending on the cell types and species involved although there is some controversy about the relative importance of each of these receptors. Most of the available evidence comes from preclinical data and human studies are just now beginning to appear in the literature, therefore firm conclusions on its clinical importance cannot yet be made. Perhaps the most promising evidence to date in human trials has come from recent studies on a benefit of β-glucan on quality of life and survival when given in combination with cancer treatment. We identify the need for future studies that compare purified forms of β-glucans from different sources to further the understanding of the mechanisms of action and aid in the development of clinical studies. Summary: β-Glucans appear to be effective at enhancing immune function and reducing susceptibility to infection and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms of β-glucan recognition and subsequent immune activation is necessary for the design of effective treatment approaches in future clinical trials
The review was aimed to accumulate the evidence on types of β-glucans, their functional properties and the mechanism by how the β-glucans regulate the gut microbiota and human health. The various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies, have been summarized, in particular, the changes happening upon the β-glucans supplementation on the gut microbiota. Overall, this review updates the recent studies on β-glucans and gut microbiota and also inputs the demanding questions to be addressed in β-glucans-microbiota research in the future.
The present review focuses on the comprehensive account of the medicinal properties of various medicinal mushrooms. This will further help the researchers to understand the metabolites and find other metabolites as well from the mushrooms which can be used for the potential development of the drugs to treat various life-threatening diseases.
With their biocompatibility, ease for modification, and the ability to interact with the immune system through multiple mechanisms, carbohydrates provide a great variety of choices to meet the various needs for vaccine studies.
This review provides a brief overview on laminarin characteristics, modification strategies and highlights its pivotal biomedical applications.
These results indicated that T-ZnO NPs and T-β-D-glu-ZnO NPs induced the cancer cell death through necrosis and apoptosis pathway, respectively. The antibacterial results indicated that the NPs treatment were significantly inhibited the growth of the Staphylococcus aureus inside of roundworm and enhanced growth of roundworm. Overall, anticancer and in vitro, in vivo antibacterial studies proved the high caliber of T-β-D-glu-ZnO NPs for the further pharmaceutical evaluation.
This review summarizes the literature data regarding plant lectins as novel drug sources in the prevention or treatment of cancer. Moreover, such compounds have been described as natural toxins that possess different biological activities (cytotoxic, antitumor, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties). This activity depends greatly on their structure and affinity. Most of the mushroom heterosides are known as β-glucans with β-(1→3)-glycosidic bonds. It is thought that their conformation, bonds, molecular size can modulate the immune response by triggering different receptors. The mechanism on normal and tumor cells of various plant and mushroom polysaccharides and lectins is briefly presented in this paper.
The amount and quality of the evidence that has been accumulating during the last decade strongly speaks in favor of the health benefits of the ingestion of A.blazei or derived products. However, there are many uncertainties and limitations when attempts are made to extrapolate or to demonstrate their biological effects in the human organism in health or disease. Clearly, more clinical trials, using reliable statistical methods and standardized preparations are needed to establish the efficacy of A. blazei as a therapeutic agent.
This paper represents an up-to-date review of glucans (β-1,3-glucans) and their role in various immune reactions and the treatment of cancer. With more than 80 clinical trials evaluating their biological effects, the question is not if glucans will move from food supplement to widely accepted drug, but how soon.
This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 30 women with breast carcinoma aged 28-65 years. The eligible participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=15) or placebo (n=15) groups using a block randomization procedure with matching based on age, course of chemotherapy and menopause status. Patients in the intervention group received two 10-mg capsules of soluble 1-3, 1-6, D-beta glucan daily and the control group receiving placebo during 21 days, the interval between two courses of chemotherapy. White blood cells, neuthrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts as well as serum levels of IL-4 and IL-12 were measured at baseline and at the end of the study as primary outcomes of the study. Results: In both groups white blood cell counts decreased after 21 days of the intervention, however in the beta glucan group, WBC was less decreased non significantly than the placebo group. At the end of the study, the change in the serum level of IL-4 in the beta glucan group in comparison with the placebo group was statistically significant (p=0.001). The serum level of IL-12 in the beta glucan group statistically increased (p=0.03) and comparison between two groups at the end of the study was significant after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (p=0.007). Conclusions: The findings suggest that beta glucan can be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy and immunomodulary agent in breast cancer patients in combination with cancer therapies, but further studies are needed for confirmation.
Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points were time-to-treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), safety, quality of life (QOL), and biomarker. The percentages of LNT-binding monocytes in peripheral blood prior to treatment were analysed for the biomarker assessment. Results: One hundred and fifty-four and 155 patients were randomly assigned to receive S-1 alone or S-1 plus LNT, respectively. The median OS was 13.8 and 9.9 months (P = 0.208), the median TTF was 4.3 and 2.6 months (P < 0.001), the ORR was 22.3% and 18.7% for the S-1 and S-1 plus LNT groups, respectively. The incidences of haematologic and non-haematologic adverse events were similar, and no significant changes in QOL scores were observed during the treatment in both groups. In a subpopulation of patients with LNT-binding monocytes ≥2%, patients who received more than two cycles of chemotherapy showed a longer survival time in the S-1 plus LNT group. Conclusions: OS did not improve and TTF was significantly worse in the S-1 plus LNT group as compared with the S-1-only group. This study showed no efficacy of LNT when combined with S-1 treatment in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer.
Both basic and preclinical studies showed that GSP has antitumor, antioxidant, anticytopenia, and unique mushroom-poison detoxification properties that are different from that of GLPS. Our goal is to provide a molecular picture that would allow in-depth evaluation of GSP as one of few glycan-based drugs that has been used as an immunomodulatory adjunctive drug during cancer therapy.
The use of numerous mushroom species in traditional medicine has been widely documented, with their observed immunomodulatory effects now attributed, in part, to bioactive components called beta-glucans. The beta-glucans are of particular interest since they are naturally occurring polymers of glucose, are orally active when taken as food supplements and have a long track record of safe use. Due to their immunomodulatory properties, purified beta-glucans have been used clinically as part of a combination therapy for a variety of cancers and their potential anti-infective properties have received attention. This review relates the structure of beta-glucans to their function, with a particular focus on their documented immunomodulatory effects and the mechanisms by which they affect inter- and intracellular function, resulting in potential antimicrobial benefits. Overall, the benefits of dietary supplementation with beta-glucans in order to enhance innate resistance to biological agents are evaluated.
Results: ORR was higher in the BTH1677 vs Control arm but the difference between groups was not statistically significant (60.4% vs 43.5%; P = .2096). All other clinical endpoints also favored the BTH1677 arm but none statistically differed between arms. PK was consistent with previous studies. Although a higher incidence of Grade 3/4 AEs occurred in the BTH1677 vs Control arm (93.2% vs 66.7%), no unexpected AEs were observed. Serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs were lower in the BTH1677 vs Control arm. Conclusions: Improvements in tumor assessments and survival were observed with BTH1677/bevacizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel compared with control treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Several experimental evidences have demonstrated a crucial role for β-glucan in the host–pathogen interaction during infections. Moreover, considerable efforts have been made to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of β-glucan in fungal pathogenesis as well as how it promotes a phagocytic-mediated immune response. Similarly, administration of fungal β-glucan is well known to stimulate the immune system and boost resistance to various infectious diseases and cancers, highlighting the multifaceted role of this molecule (Figure (Figure1).1). However, although many in vivo studies have shown a beneficial effect of the β-glucans isolated from different sources, a comprehensive investigation of the mechanism of action is still lacking. In addition, the absence of detailed methodology on experimentation, β-glucan molecules source and purity reached render interpretation of the various results very complex. As such, discrepancies observed in the different studies are mainly related to the choice of purified components being used. In addition, unfortunately only few human studies are available and most of them have not been followed up with success. Hence, the possibility for clinical application of β-glucan should be considered with caution and will require further investigation. Future studies need to deeply characterize how β-glucans with different structure and molecular weight interact with each receptor and which specific signaling pathways are triggered. Moreover, providing details on the procedure and composition of the carbohydrate molecule under investigation remains crucial. An understanding should be made in the near future to use a common standardized β-glucan molecule with described biochemical properties. With such a common control, we might endeavor a rational use of this promising molecule in the future as an adjuvant or therapeutic agent.
Recently, the biosynthetic steps leading to formation of pneumocandin B0 and echinocandin B have been elucidated, and thus, provide a framework and attractive model for further design new antifungal therapeutics around natural variations in echinocandin structural diversities via genetic and chemical tools. In this article, we analyze the biosynthetic pathway of pneumocandins and other echinocandins, provide an update on the array of pneumocandin analogues generated by genetic manipulation, and summarize advances in the enhancement of pneumocandin B0 production by random mutagenesis and fermentation optimization. We also give offer advice on the development of improved pneumocandin drug candidates and more efficient production of pneumocandin B0.
β-Glucans is the common name given to a group of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides. They are long- or short-chain polymers of (1-->3)-β-linked glucose moieties which may be branched, with the branching chains linked to the backbone by a (1-->6)-β linkage. β-(1-->3)-Glucans are widely distributed in bacteria, algae, fungi and plants, where they are involved in cell wall structure and other biological function. β-Glucans have been shown to provide a remarkable range of health beneﬁts, and are especially important against the two most common conventional causes of death in industrialized countries, i.e. cardiovascular diseases (where they promote healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels) and cancer (where they enhance immune system functions). This Highlight provides a comprehensive and up-to-date commentary on β-glucans, their chemistry, physico-chemistry, functional role in immunological responses, and possible applications as therapeutic tools. In addition, we discuss the mechanism behind their health beneﬁts, which are not yet fully understood.
Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.
Overall clinical data show solid effect of lentinan on improving the quality of life and on promoting the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy during cancer treatment.
The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully understood and even the recommendation on the dose of different dietary NSPs intake among different age groups needs to be studied.
The preparation and characterization of a series of di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide analogues of β-(1→3)-glucans is described in which each pyranoside ring is replaced by a 5-thiopyranosyl ring and each glycosidic oxygen by a thioether. These oligomeric 1,5-dithio-d-glucopyranose derivatives were shown to inhibit the staining of human neutrophils and of mouse macrophages by fluorescent anti-CR3 and anti-Dectin-1 antibodies, respectively.
The aim of this study was to evaluate both intraperitoneal and oral application of seaweed-derived (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan Phycarine.
In this investigation, gene expression profiles were compared between AP-treated and control human breast cancer ZR-75-1 cells to elucidate the mechanism of AP mitogenicity.
For years, it has been held that cathepsin D (CD) is involved in rather non-specific protein degradation in a strongly acidic milieu of lysosomes. Studies with CD knock-out mice revealed that CD is not necessary for embryonal development, but it is indispensable for postnatal tissue homeostasis
Procathepsin D (pCD) is a glycoprotein secreted abundantly by cancerous cells with a documented role in tumor development.
Extrapolating from lessons learnt with previous low-molecular-weight β-(1→3)-glucan mimetics, we designed a series of minimal 2,4-dideoxy-thioether-linked carbacyclic β-(1→3)-glucan mimetics and synthesized di-, tri-, and tetramers in an enantiomerically pure form by an iterative sequence based on a simple building block readily available from commercial ( S)-(-)-3-cyclohexenecarboxylic acid.
This review focused on the biological properties of glucan and glucomannan.
Exocellular (1→6)-β-d-glucan (lasiodiplodan) produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI was derivatized by carboxymethylation using different concentrations of a derivatizing agent. Lasiodiplodan was derivatized by carboxymethylation in an attempt to increase its solubility and enhance its biological activities.
In this paper, the effects of Procathepsin D (pCD)
were evaluated by proliferation in vitro and by mouse studies in vivo.
The strong immunostimulating potential of β-glucans has been well established in numerous diseases. However, the effects on viral infection were less studied.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) One of the rare studies of glucan effects on viral infection.
Pleurotus eryngii is recognized for its prominent nutritional and medicinal value. In our study, we tested the effect of glucans on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of TNF-α. We demonstrated that glucan extracts are more effective than mill mushroom preparations.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Definite proof that natural glucan can be substituted with synthetic glucan-based oligosaccharides.
Overview on the Evolution of Immunity
Synthesis of beta glucan
Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-in-flammatory bowel disease (IBD) mice model, we measured the colonic inflammatory response to the different glucan preparations.
Overview of the chemical structure of beta glucan mimetics.
β-Glucans are well-established immunomodulators. Recently, glucans have been found to influence stress-related immunosuppression.
present paper, fifteen varieties of glucans differing in source and solubility were tested. There was no direct
connection between source and immunological effects was found. The conclusion was that
the best glucans
have pleiotropic effects stimulating all facets of immunological reactions, whereas other glucans have low
effects or none at all.
The aim of this study was to directly compare the anti-infectious and anti-cancer effects of five commercially available glucans.
The aim of this study was to compare injected and oral beta glucans and their immunomodulatory activities.
The aim of this study was to compare mushroom and yeast derived beta glucans and their immunomodulatory activities.
The aim of this study was to compare different kinds of beta glucans and their immunomodulatory activities.
The aim of this study was to compare different kinds of beta glucans and their immunomodulatory activities.
The aim of this study was to compare different kinds of beta glucans and their immunomodulatory activities.
Cancer is considered a fetal disease caused by uncontrolled proliferation and progression of abnormal cells. The most efficient cancer therapies suppress tumor growth, prevent progression and metastasis, and are minimally toxic to normal cells. Natural compounds have shown a variety of chemo-protective effects alone or in combination with standard cancer therapies.
The prevalence of obesity and related disorders has vastly increased throughout the world and prevention of such circumstances thus represents a major challenge. Here, it has been shown that one protein-bound β-glucan (PBG) from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor can be a potent anti-obesity component.
In this study, we showed that SGA suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. SGA also potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. TGFβ signaling and overexpression of Slug are regarded as the critical events in lung tumor malignancy.
A nanoplatform carrying doxorubicin (Dox) for cancer therapy and a dye for imaging was developed based on a natural triple helix β-glucan (t-LNT) and polydeoxyadenylic acid (poly(dA)). The t-LNT-Dox conjugates were prepared through Schiff-base reaction between the aldehyde group in the oxidized t-LNT and the amino group of Dox, the single chains (s-LNT-Dox) of which interacted with the poly(dA)-dye to form a composite s-LNT-Dox/poly(dA)-dye through hydrogen bonding between s-LNT and poly(dA).
β-glucans are polysaccharides comprising β-D-glucoses with various bioactivities. Herein, we extracted three β-glucans from Lentinus edodes with different sources and assessed their antitumor activities on a mice model with intragastric, intraperitoneal and intratumoral injection.
Imprime PGG (Imprime) is an i.v. administered, yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucan in clinical development with checkpoint inhibitors. Imprime-mediated innate immune activation requires immune complex formation with naturally occurring IgG anti-β glucan Abs (ABA).
A new supramolecular polysaccharide complex, comprising a functionalised coumarin tag featuring a boronic acid and β-d-glucan (a natural product extract from barley, Hordeum Vulgare) was assembled based on the ability of the boronate motif to specifically recognise and bind to 1,2- or 1,3-diols in water.
Rationale: Prompt diagnosis of invasive fungal infections is important because of the associated morbidity and mortality; however, diagnosis is challenging because of the nonspecific symptoms and radiographic findings.Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan (GM) and serum or BAL polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with suspected invasive aspergillosis (IA), β-d-glucan in critically ill patients at risk for candidiasis or candidemia, and serology testing and antigen detection in patients with endemic mycoses (histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis).
Development of high photothermal performance and biocompatible nanotherapeutic agents is of great importance for photothermal cancer treatment. In this paper, we have developed lentinan decorated tungsten oxide nanorods (W18O49@LTN NRs) via a mild one-step solvothermal route.
MS4A4A is a tetraspan molecule selectively expressed in macrophages during differentiation and polarization, essential for dectin-1-dependent activation of NK cell-mediated resistance to metastasis.
Dietary fibre comprises many different, mainly plant-based, compounds that are not fully digested in the human gut. Insoluble fibres include cellulose, hemi-celluloses and lignin and soluble fibres include pectins, β-glucan and hydro-colloids. In the UK, the daily recommended amount has increased to 30 g but only 13 % of men and 4 % of women meet this recommendation.
In the present study, we further explored its antitumor effects in vivo as an immune stimulator.
A water insoluble β-glucan (PS), with molecular mass ∼9.16 × 104 Da was isolated from the 4% alkaline extract of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus djamor and found to consist of (1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl moiety.
The initial host response to fungal pathogen invasion is critical to infection establishment and outcome. However, the diversity of leukocyte-pathogen interactions is only recently being appreciated. We describe a new form of interleukocyte conidial exchange called "shuttling."
Evidence-based guidelines for the use of microbiological laboratory testing for the diagnosis of fungal infections in pulmonary and critical care were recently published by a multidisciplinary committee of experts on behalf of the American Thoracic Society (1). A systematic review of the literature pertaining to the use of microbiological, serological, and molecular tests for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), invasive candidiasis (IC), and the common endemic mycoses was performed.
The current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and are not well supported. Beta-glucan or quercetin in a diet can alleviate colorectal cancer (CRC) by regulating the gut microbiota and related genes, but the effects of alternating their consumption for routine ingestion during CRC occurrence remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of alternating the consumption of β-glucan and quercetin for routine ingestion on CRC development in mice.
A polysaccharide-enriched extract obtained from Lentinula edodes was submitted to several purification steps to separate three different D-glucans with β-(1→6), β-(1→3),(1→6) and α-(1→3) linkages, being characterized through GC-MS, FT-IR, NMR, SEC and colorimetric/fluorimetric determinations.
to evaluate the possible effects of a combination of glucan and vitamin C on immunosuppression caused
Here, we identify Dectin-1 as a crucial tolerogenic receptor binding with nanomolar affinity to the core domain of several annexins (annexin A1, A5, and A13) exposed on ACs. Annexins bind to Dectin-1 on a site distinct from the interaction site of pathogen-derived β-glucans.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and -steatohepatitis (NASH) imply a state of excessive fat built-up in livers with/or without inflammation and have led to serious medical concerns in recent years. Antrodan (Ant), a purified β-glucan from A. cinnamomea has been shown to exhibit tremendous bioactivity, including hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antiliver cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects.
β-glucans represent a heterogeneous group of naturally occurring and biologically active polysaccharides found in many kinds of edible mushrooms, baker's yeast, cereals and seaweeds, whose health-promoting effects have been known since ancient times. These compounds can be taken orally as food supplements or as part of daily diets, and are safe to use, nonimmunogenic and well tolerated.
Macrophages have been linked to tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and treatment resistance. However, the transcriptional regulation of macrophages driving the protumor function remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Maf is a critical controller for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and function in cancer. c-Maf controls many M2-related genes and has direct binding sites within a conserved noncoding sequence of the Csf-1r gene and promotes M2-like macrophage–mediated T cell suppression and tumor progression. c-Maf also serves as a metabolic checkpoint regulating the TCA cycle and UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis, thus promoting M2-like macrophage polarization and activation. Additionally, c-Maf is highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulates TAM immunosuppressive function. Deletion of c-Maf specifically in myeloid cells results in reduced tumor burden with enhanced antitumor T cell immunity. Inhibition of c-Maf partly overcomes resistance to anti–PD-1 therapy in a subcutaneous LLC tumor model. Similarly, c-Maf is expressed in human M2 and tumor-infiltrating macrophages/monocytes as well as circulating monocytes of human non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and critically regulates their immunosuppressive activity. The natural compound β-glucan downregulates c-Maf expression on macrophages, leading to enhanced antitumor immunity in mice. These findings establish a paradigm for immunosuppressive macrophage polarization and transcriptional regulation by c-Maf and suggest that c-Maf is a potential target for effective tumor immunotherapy.
Grifola frondosa is an edible and medicinal mushroom with great nutritional values and bioactivities. In the present study, a soluble homogeneous β-glucan, GFPS, with high molecular mass of 5.42 × 106 Da was purified from the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa using 5% cold NaOH.
In this Review, the recent research progress of chain conformations, bioactivities, and structure-function relationships of triple-helix β-glucans is summarized.
β1,3-glucans from fungi, cereals, seaweeds and bacteria have been shown to possess favourable biological and anti-carcinogenic activities including upregulation of phagocytosis, cytokine production enhancement, superoxide and nitrite production; antibody secretion and stimulation of signalling pathways associated with proto-oncogene expression.
on the antibody production in glucan-supplemented children with chronic respiratory problems.
The role of glucan in stimulation of immune reactions has been well-established. In this report, we focused
From VV (via email w/ AJ) First of the whole series of clinical trials evaluating the effects of short-term glucan supplementation in children
by influenza infection.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on serum lipids of a yeast-derived beta-glucan fiber in 15 free-living, obese, hypercholesterolemic men.
In this review, two sources of beta-glucan are described; one source is oats and the other yeast.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Description of two different glucans and their role in lowering serum lipids including cholesterol.
Plasma cholesterol concentration is reduced by feeding some dietary fibers and mushroom fruit body, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We examined the effects of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber and sugar beet fiber on serum cholesterol and hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in rats.
The effect of the diet containing 5% of powdered oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) or an equivalent amount of mushroom ethanolic extract on cholesterol content in serum and liver, on its distribution in lipoproteins, absorption and turnover was studied in male Wistar rats (initial body weight about 70 g) fed a diet with 0.3% cholesterol. 12 weeks of feeding with whole oyster mushroom or mushroom extract reduced cholesterol level in serum by 52 and 33%, respectively.
Extracts from the dried and ground fungus were prepared with water and with 30%, 60% and 85% ethanol, and thickened in vacuum. The whole fungus and extracts were added to the hyperlipidemic diet in amounts equivalent to 3% of the whole fungus.
The fruit bodies of Pleurotus species as a class of "Edible Fungal Foods" have been discovered to have definite nutritive and medicinal values.
The effects of a low dose of oat bran in the background diet only were investigated in volunteers with mild-to-moderate hyperlipidemia.
The high amount of soluble beta-glucans in oats may be responsible for beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and blood lipids.
The effects of increasing quantities of oat bran on plasma lipids were examined in 40 hypercholesterolemic men and women.
A dose-dependent reduction in LDL-C levels with oat cereals supports the independent hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan.
Oat or bean products, rich in water-soluble fiber, have distinct hypocholesterolemic effects in humans. After a control diet, 20 hypercholesterolemic men were randomly allocated to oat-bran or bean supplemented diets for 21 days on a metabolic ward.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether oat beta-glucan is responsible for the increased bile acid excretion previously observed with oat-fiber diets.
The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of two sources of dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides, NSP) on blood lipids and glucose concentrations.
Fiber regulates the rate and site of lipid and carbohydrate digestion and absorption and thus can modify the alimentary responses to a meal. When fiber sources containing viscous polysaccharides are included in a meal, a slower rate of carbohydrate and lipid absorption will modify the alimentary hormone and lipid responses.
The study evaluated the blood cholesterol-lowering effects of a dietary supplement of water-soluble fibers (guar gum, pectin) and mostly non-water-soluble fibers (soy fiber, pea fiber, corn bran) in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia (LDL cholesterol, 3.37-4.92 mmol/L).
To evaluate the hypocholesterolemic effects of long-term treatment (36 to 51 weeks) with a mixture of dietary fibers (guar gum, pectin, soy, pea, corn bran) administered twice a day.
In the current study, the therapeutic efficacy mediated by combining bevacizumab with yeast-derived beta-glucan was studied in human carcinoma xenograft models.
Intravenous and orally administered beta-glucans promote tumor regression and survival by priming granulocyte and macrophage C receptor 3 (CR3, iC3bR and CD11b/CD18) to trigger the cytotoxicity of tumor cells opsonized with iC3b via anti-tumor Abs.
Metastases from renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy but are relatively immunogenic. We have investigated the possibility to eliminate human RCC micrometastases using MAb G250.
The tumor-killing mechanisms available to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; e.g., antagonism of growth factor receptors, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) limit efficacy. Previous studies suggested that i.v. beta-glucan might function as an adjuvant for antitumor mAbs. beta- Glucan had been shown to function via the iC3b-receptor complement receptor 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18) thereby enhancing leukocyte killing of tumor cells coated with iC3b via naturally occurring antitumor antibodies.
We tested if (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-D-glucan (beta-glucan) can synergize with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 3F8 (mouse IgG3) in therapy of human neuroblastoma xenografts.
Glucan, a beta-1,3 polyglucose, was administered to mice either 1 h before or 1 h after a 650 rad exposure to cobalt-60 radiation. Compared to radiation controls, glucan-treated mice consistently exhibited a more rapid recovery of pluripotent stem cells and committed granulocyte, macrophage, and erythroid progenitor cells. This may partially explain the mechanism by which glucan also enhances survival in otherwise lethally irradiated mice.
Glucan, WR-2721, and selenium, three agents with distinct radioprotective mechanisms, were evaluated in C3H/HeN mice for survival-enhancing and hemopoietic-regenerating effects when administered alone or in combinations before exposure to 60Co radiation.
In these studies, the combined therapeutic effects of the immunomodulator glucan and the quinolone antibiotic pefloxacin were evaluated for survival-enhancing effects in myelosuppressed C3H/HeN mice.
Female C57BL/6 mice aged 6-8 weeks with transplanted Lewis lung cancer cells were used to investigate the anti-tumour effects and immune reactions in tumour tissue induced by X-ray and pion irradiation and their modification by schizophyllan (SPG). The effect of SPG on the rate of lung metastasis and the survival time of the mice was also studied using the same tumour system.
The polysaccharides beta-glucans occur as a principal component of the cellular walls. Some microorganisms, such as yeast and mushrooms, and also cereals such as oats and barley, are of economic interest because they contain large amounts of beta-glucans.
This investigation explored mechanisms of tumor therapy with soluble beta-glucan in mice.
When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b. From VV (via email w/ AJ) First discovery of glucan binding to the CR3 receptors and the mechanisms of priming of this receptor for cytotoxic action.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) First discovery of glucan binding to the CR3 receptors and the mechanisms of priming of this receptor for cytotoxic action.
Our objective was to determine if a follow-up formula (FUF) containing DHA, the prebiotics PDX and GOS, and yeast β-glucan affects incidence of respiratory infections and diarrheal disease in healthy children.
It was examined whether orally ingested, superfine dispersed β-1,3-glucan (SDG), easily absorbed by intestinal mucosa, would alleviate allergic symptoms.
Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM stroma (stroma-iC3b). In the present study, we have examined how stroma-iC3b interacts with hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and the role of complement (C) and complement receptor 3 (CR3) in BM injury/repair. We demonstrate here that stroma-iC3b tethers HPCs via the inserted (I) domain of HPC complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, Mac-1). Following irradiation, stroma-iC3b was observed in the presence of purified IgM and normal mouse serum (NMS), but not serum from Rag-2-/- mice, implicating a role for antibody (Ab) and the classic pathway of C activation. Furthermore, a novel role for soluble yeast β-glucan, a ligand for the CR3 lectin-like domain (LLD), in the priming of CR3+ HPC is suggested. Soluble yeast β-glucan could enhance the proliferation of tethered HPCs, promote leukocyte recovery following sublethal irradiation, and increase the survival of lethally irradiated animals following allogeneic HPC transplantation in a CR3-dependent manner. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and β-glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis following injury.
To determine whether the infection-preventing capability of the neutrophil-activating agent poly-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranose glucan (PGG-glucan) can be enhanced with antibiotic prophylaxis, we administered PGG-glucan and cefazolin, alone and in combination, to guinea pigs inoculated with isolates of staphylococci.
In this study we aimed
to evaluate the possible effects of a combination of glucan and vitamin C on immunosuppression caused
by influenza infection.
Mouse leukocyte CR3 (Mac-1, alphaMbeta2 integrin) was shown to function as a receptor for beta-glucans in the same way as human CR3.
Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.
The current review discusses the evidence supporting the effects of β‑glucans on cholesterol levels.
We briefly review the characteristics of the glucans from mycelial walls as modulators of the immunity and their possible use as antitumor treatments.
Oral β-glucan pretreatment reduces infarction size and improves regional contractile function in a porcine ischaemia/reperfusion model.
Increased consumption of barely products should be considered as a dietary approach to reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations.
The present findings show that beta-glucans enhance the tumor response to PDT, resulting in pronounced necrosis of PDT-treated tumors and suppression of the DNA damage repair system.
Personal exposure to fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan was determined at different woodworking sites--logging sites, sawmills, woodchipping sites, and joineries.
GNPs could be used as an effective resistance activator in turmeric for control of rhizome rot disease.
The effect of β-glucans-containing food on bacterial adhesion to enterocyte-like cells was analyzed and a positive influence on probiotic-enterocyte interaction was observed.
Our data describing a large set of defense reactions in grapevine indicate that the activation of defense responses using elicitors could be a valuable strategy to protect plants against pathogens.
In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects were observed after subchronic oral administration of 2, 33.3, or 100mg/kg body weight/day of WGP 3-6 in Fisher-344 rats, and therefore, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested, was determined.
It was found that (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan is an antioxidant with the scavenging ability lying between that of alpha-tocopherol, which is known to be incorporated in the lipid bilayer, and the water-soluble antioxidant, mannitol.
PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in the further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery
All the investigated Curdlan derivatives (SP, Palm CM/SP, CM/SP, Palm CM, Palm SP and CM) were able to inhibit HEp-2 tumor cell growth, by up-regulating Doxorubicin and Actinomycin D cytostatic activity.
This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D).
The results suggestthat Candida utilis cell-wall GM is a potential immunomodulativeagent in treating exaggerated neutrophilic inflammationaccompanying arthritis and thus GM seems to be beneficial forrheumatoid arthritis therapy.
IMG administration had a positive immunomodulating effect on all cytokine plasma levels measured, changed markedly due to arthritis progression. Thus, IMG may be considered as a candidate for combinatorial therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.
The immunomodulative effects of little effective purified glucan increased when combined with porcine immunoglobulin and zinc. The results are significant from the aspect of the nonspecific stimulation of immunity in ascariasis and in some other helminthoses.
This article reviews clinical trials that have evaluated these approaches, and highlights promising combination vaccine/immunomodulator combination treatments based upon published clinical trial results.
Immunopotentiation effected by binding of a (1→3)-β-glucan molecule or particle probably includes activation of cytotoxic macrophages, helper T cells, and NK cells, promotion of T cell differentiation, and activation of the alternative complement pathway.
The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.
We conclude from these results that (i) neither glucan preparation alone effectively enhances survival following CL/P when using the doses and administration schedule employed herein, (ii) both glucan-P and glucan-F do act synergistically with antibiotics to enhance survival in this rat model of polymicrobial sepsis, and (iii) in this particular model, nontoxic glucan-F is as efficacious as glucan-P.
Soluble beta-1,3/1,6-glucan administered by the oral route diminishes ligature-induced periodontal bone loss in this model. This effect may be attributable to the well documented ability of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan to stimulate macrophage phagocytosis and to skew the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance towards Th1 and T regulatory responses. The HPA axis may play a significant role in beta-1,3/1,6-glucan induced immune modulation.
Host immunosuppression after trauma contributes to septic morbidity. The macrophage is a key element in the host immune response. This study evaluated glucan, a macrophage stimulant, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of 38 trauma patients undergoing surgery.
Due to significant increases in anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline levels and considering the inhibitory effect of β-Glucan on epithelial damage, edema, and submucosal-muscular layer damage, β-Glucan was thought to contribute to the healing of the anastomosis.
FR-S displays an interesting mechanism of antiviral action and represents a promising candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of herpetic infections, to be used as a single therapeutic agent or in combination with acyclovir.
The present study demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in EMR-induced skin tissue damages and that β-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties.
Taken together, these findings indicate that Hsp70 inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation by binding TRAF6 and preventing its ubiquitination, and results in inhibition of inflammatory mediator production, which provides a new insight for analyzing the effects of Hsp70 on LPS-triggered inflammatory signal transduction pathways.
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major zoonotic and intracellular pathogen. Different strategies have been developed to prevent the S. Enteritidis infection. The beta-1,3-1,6-glucan of Schizophyllum commune was used as an immunological booster to determine the minimal dietary level of beta-glucan that would restrict S. Enteritidis infection through the effects of beta-glucan on the activity of macrophages and direct physical protection of the intestine.
Carboxymethylglucan (CMG) with ultrasonically lowered molecular weight (0.89 x 10(5)) was administered either intraperitoneally, intravenously or orally prior to cyclophosphamide (CP) injection and its effect on the frequency of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow was evaluated.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) Isolated glucan from mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes), named it lentinan.
The present review examines the evidence regarding the effect of β-glucan on variables linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including appetite control, glucose control, hypertension, and gut microbiota composition.
Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM stroma (stroma-iC3b). In the present study, we have examined how stroma-iC3b interacts with hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and the role of complement (C) and complement receptor 3 (CR3) in BM injury/repair.
MLT contributes to protecting the oral cavity from tissue damage caused by receptor action. Experimental evidence suggests that it may be useful in the treatment and prognosis of tumour processes in the oral cavity.
An α-d-glucan produced by Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was explored for in vitro prebiotic activities.
Results of this study demonstrated that consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan was not associated with any obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats even following consumption of large quantities.
Partial-thickness burns in children can be effectively treated with BGC with good results, even in infants and toddlers. BGC markedly simplifies wound care for the patient and family and seems to significantly decrease postinjury pain.
The results indicate that 1,3-beta-D-glucan does interact with surfactant and this complex may play a part in the pathogenesis of byssinosis by altering lung physiology maintained by pulmonary surfactant.
Oral beta glucan administration seems to stimulate proliferation and activation of peripheral blood monocytes in vivo in patients with advanced breast cancer.
From VV (via email w/ AJ) When zymosan was examined in details, glucan was identified as the component of primary effects and its immunological effects were investigated.
A soluble fraction of particulate glucan was prepared and evaluated for its anti-tumor and anti-bacterial activity.
The effects of glucan and liposomized glucan, alone or co-administered with vitamin C, and empty liposomes on hepatic fibrosis in mice infected with Mesocestoides corti (M. vogae) tetrathyridia were studied.
The antitumor effect of extracts obtained from the fruit body of Agaricus blazei Murill was examined in a double-grafted tumor system, in which BALB/c mice received simultaneous intradermal injections of Meth-A tumor cells in both the right (10(6) cells) and left flank (2 x 10(5) cells), and were then injected with 5 mg of extracts of A. blazei in the right tumor on days 3, 4 and 5.
To test possible dietary immune modulators, 32 crossbred male pigs were given 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pigs/treatment): control, Saccharomyces cerevisiae with beta-glucan (Energy Plus, Natural Chem Industries LTD, Houston, TX; 0.312 g/kg of BW, 2.5% of diet), vitamin C (Stay C 35, DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Prisippany, NJ; 75 ppm), or beta-glucan plus vitamin C together (combination; 0.312 g/kg of BW and 75 ppm, respectively).
Weaning in young animals is associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal infections. β-glucans exert numerous physiological effects, including altering immune function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-derived β-glucans on immune and intestinal function in weanling pigs (Sus scrofa).
A soluble homogeneous β-glucan, GFPBW1, with a molecular mass of 300 kDa was purified from the fraction of the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa extracted with 5% NaOH. Using various methods, such as infrared spectroscopy, NMR, methylation and monosaccharide composition analysis, its structure was determined to be a β-D-(1-3)-linked glucan backbone with a single β-D-(1-6)-linked glucopyranosyl residue branched at C-6 on every third residue.
In an animal model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) guinea-pigs were exposed for 5 weeks to an aerosol of bacterial endotoxin, beta(1,3)-D-glucan (curdlan) or a combination.
Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and statins are the common drugs used to correct dyslipidemia. Herein, we report a case where the subject was a nondiabetic, dyslipidemia patient on medication with Rosuvastatin.
By combining the rationale of pro- and prebiotics, the concept of synbiotics is proposed to characterize some colonic foods with interesting nutritional properties that make these compounds candidates for classification as health-enhancing functional food ingredients.
This study was carried out to assess the safety and efficacy of a combination of lentinan, an immune modulator, and didanosine (ddI) in a controlled study in HIV positive patients with CD4 levels of 200-500 cells/mm3.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a contributing factor to impaired wound healing in humans. A large body of evidence indicates that the diabetic state is associated with delayed or reduced wound repair capacity. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of glucan on improving abdominal wall wound healing in rats with DM.
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of sulfated lentinan (sLNT) on immune effect of Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine.
It is widely known that β-glucans and probiotic bacteria are good immunostimulants for fish.
The objective of the study was to determine the immunostimulatory effect of β-(1,3/1,6)-D-glucan in puppies.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the preoperative administration of lentinan, which is used clinically to activate T cell function in cancer patients, prevents the impairment of lymphocyte function after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
In this review, we describe how the key molecules related to the expression of the immunomodulating activities of beta-glucan were identified, and how the response to beta-glucan is controlled.
Our data reveal a beneficial effect of beta-(1-3), (1-6)-D-glucan in tumor growth inhibition by tumor-specific peptide vaccination which may rely on a function of the polymeric sugar as immunological adjuvant.
The tumor-killing mechanisms available to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; e.g., antagonism of growth factor receptors, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) limit efficacy. Previous studies suggested that i.v. beta-glucan might function as an adjuvant for antitumor mAbs.
These granulocytes with CR3-bound beta-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAb.
Utilizing primary rat hepatocytes we investigated the potential antimutagenic and anti-cytotoxic effects of carboxymethyl chitin-glucan (CM-CG) with respect to oxidative stress induced by the model free-radical-generating compounds hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). Different kinds of CM-CG action were studied by two different treatment protocols: a. pre-incubation of freshly isolated hepatocytes with the potential anti-mutagen followed by exposure to the oxidant or b. simultaneous treatment of hepatocytes with the potential anti-mutagen and the oxidant.
When treated with fungal polysaccharide schizophyllan, mice survived otherwise lethal Sendai virus infection.
Sulfated schizophyllans of differing sulfur content were prepared and their mitogenic activities and effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were investigated in vitro.
Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation.
Mushrooms are well recognized for their culinary properties as well as for their potency to enhance immune response. In the present study, we evaluated anti-inflammatory properties of an edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in vitro and in vivo.
A postoperative long term chemotherapy was carried out against stage IV gastric cancer with Mitomycin-C, Futraful and a plant polysaccharide, PS-K.
Coriolus versicolor has been known to be an immune stimulator effects.
The present study aimed to determine the effect of oral β-glucan on mucositis and leukopenia in 62 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer treated with an adjuvant FOLFOX-4 regimen.
β-Glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides in cereal grains, mushrooms, algae, or microbes, including bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Immune cells recognize these β-glucans through a cell surface pathogen recognition receptor called Dectin-1. Studies using β-glucans and other Dectin-1 binding components have demonstrated the potential of these agents in activating the immune cells for cancer treatment and controlling infections.
The judicious use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the infectious complications of surgery. However, increased bacterial resistance within hospitals may make antibiotic prophylaxis less effective in the future and alternative strategies are needed. New immunomodulatory agents might prevent wound infections by stimulation of the host immune system.
The preventive effect of an immunopotentiator, beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan, on the development of diabetes and insulitis was studied in BB rats.
The effects of beta-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans were observed on acute xylene-induced inflammation.
The object of this study was to assess the efficacy of
Polycan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001, which is
composed mostly of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan, on osteoarthritis
(OA)-induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection
and partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT&PMM).
Laminarin, a linear beta-1,3 glucan (mean degree of polymerization of 33) was extracted and purified from the brown alga Laminaria digitata.
Glucans, or polymers of D-glucose linked by (1→3)-β and (1→6)-β glycosidic linkages are the common polysaccharides of the fungal cell wall. They are usually located in the inner part of the wall and play the role of skeletal polysaccharide contributing to the shape and rigidity of the cell wall.
Radical-scavenging activity of the water-soluble derivative obtained from cell wall of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated using the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance.
The effect of diet on the development of stroke has recently achieved much interest by various research groups, but with inconclusive results. The aim of the present review was to systematically present and discuss the up to date available research regarding the relationship between adherence to dietary patterns and stroke.
Fungal cell wall glucans nonspecifically stimulate various aspects of innate immunity. Glucans are thought to mediate their effects via interaction with membrane receptors on macrophages, neutrophils, and NK cells. There have been no reports of glucan receptors on nonimmune cells. We investigated the binding of a water-soluble glucan in primary cultures of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF).
The antitumor activity of a branched beta-1,3-glucan "grifolan LE" purified from liquid cultures of Grifola frondosa (Ohno et al. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 34, 1709-1715 (1986] was examined on an allogeneic murine tumor system.
Marked tumor-regressing activity was induced in the serum of S180 tumor-bearing mice by injection of an antitumor polysaccharide, CM-TAK [carboxymethylated beta(1-3)glucan]. Maximal activity was induced 7-14 days after the tumor transplantation and 10-12 h after CM-TAK treatment.
In this paper, we review existing data on the mechanism of whole mushrooms and isolated mushroom compounds, in particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and the means by which they modulate the immune system and potentially exert tumor-inhibitory effects.
Tumor cells (AH130 hepatoma cell originated from rat) were injected intraportally into Donryu rats to produce liver metastases 21 days later. Phagocyte cells activity was depressed by the administration of Silica, which significantly increased the number of surface liver metastases.
The antitumor activity of (1----3)-beta-D-glucans was tested in order to clarify its conformation-dependent response together with conformational elucidation by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy. It was shown that the following three conformations, single chain, single helix and triple helix, are readily distinguished by the high-resolution solid-state 13C-NMR method.
A cell-wall preparation from the cells of Elsinoe leucospila, which produces elsinan extracellularly when grown on sucrose or glucose-potato extract medium, was fractionated systematically.
The relationship between the conformation of (1----3)-beta-D-glucans in gel or hydrated form and the stimulation of two types of biological responses, namely, activation of coagulation Factor G from limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and host-mediated antitumor activity was examined.
A potent tumor-regressing activity was found in the serum of mice with S180 tumor undergoing rapid regression caused by antitumor polysaccharides. Beta (1-3) glucan including CM-TAK and lentinan and mannoglucan MGA induced such activity.
The early cellular responses to antitumor immunomodulators and conventional inducers, especially the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) responses, were examined in the peritoneal cavity of mice to investigate their effect on primary defense mechanisms.
The antitumor effect of biological preparations was examined in a double grafted tumor system. PSK is a hot water extract of cultured mycelia from Coliolus versicolor. Its protein content is about 38% and the main glycoside portion of PSK is beta-D-glucan.
The antitumor activity of a combination of an antitumor polysaccharide, lentinan (a beta 1-3 glucan with beta 1-6 branches), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) was evaluated against established MBL-2 lymphoma and S908.D2 sarcoma at i.d. sites.
Lymphokine-activated killer activity in vivo (endogenous LAK activity) was found to be augmented by combined administration of lentinan, a beta (1-3) glucan with beta-1,6 branches, and interleukin 2 (IL-2).
A rapid decrease in the number of tumor cells from S180 tumors was caused by several antitumor polysaccharides including the beta (1-3)glucans lentinan and TAK-N and a mannoglucan MGA, but not by those lacking antitumor activity.
The beta (1----3) glucan lentinan was tested for its capacity to increase the cytotoxic effect of murine peritoneal macrophages for human tumor cells in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs).
Heparanase activity correlates with the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Moreover, the anti-metastatic effect of non-anti-coagulant species of heparin and certain sulfated polysaccharides was attributed to their heparanase-inhibiting activity. We investigated the effect of a chemically sulfated polysaccharide (laminarin), consisting primarily of beta-1,3 glucan (sodium laminarin), and of synthetic phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides, primarily phosphorothioate homopolymer of cytidine (SdC28), on heparanase activity and tumor metastasis.
Macrophages obtained from animals treated with beta-1,3-D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads were greatly stimulated, as judged by morphology, esterase release, and cytostatic effect on L-929 tumour cells in vitro.
Distribution of 3H-labeled (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan([3H]SSG) obtained from the culture filtrate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, in various tissues in tumor-bearing mice was examined.
In this study, we examined the effect of systemic administration of SSG, a soluble highly branched (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan obtained from a fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, on pulmonary immune responses in mice.
The action of carrageenan (CAR), a representative blocking reagent for phagocytes, on the antitumor effect and tissue distribution of highly branched (1-->3-beta-D-glucan, SSG, was examined. CAR inhibited the antitumor effect of intraperitoneally administered SSG only when applied before inoculation of the tumor, and had little effect when applied after tumor inoculation.
Orally administered SSG, a beta-1,3-glucan obtained from the culture filtrate of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, was examined for effects on immune responses in mice.
The effects of a highly branched beta-1,3-glucan, SSG, obtained from a culture filtrate of a fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395, on the growth of syngeneic tumors and antitumor effector cells were examined.
The antitumor activity of a highly branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan, SSG, purified from the liquid culture filtrate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum IFO 9395 and its several derivatives were treated in ICR mice bearing Sarcoma 180 cells.
The antitumor activity of mouse polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) treated with a beta-1,3-D-glucan from Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes IFO 13140 (TAK-N) and its carboxymethylated derivative (CM-TAK) was investigated in vitro and in vivo.
It has been reported that beta-1,3-D-glucan isolated from Alcaligenes faecalis (TAK) promoted tumor cytolysis by mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We investigated the effect of serum on mouse PMN tumor cytolysis induced by TAK and other PMN stimulators.
We studied the tumor cytotoxicity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) obtained from bg/bg.
In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the tumoricidal activity of PMN induced by these immunomodulators and especially TAK.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined antitumor effect of aminated beta-1,3-D-glucan (AG) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in an experimental liver metastasis model.
Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.
The relatively simple chemistry and low toxicity of AG, together with its solubility in biological fluids, makes it a promising tool in experimental—and possibly clinical—tumor therapy.
An aminated β-1,3-D-glucan derivative of curdlan is reported to render macrophages cytostatic to L-929 cells and to potentiate macrophage cytotoxicity to the tumor cells in vitro.
As the SARS-CoV-2 virus wreaks havoc on the populations, health care infrastructures and economies of nations around the world, finding ways to protect health care workers and bolster immune responses in the general population while we await an effective vaccine will be the difference between life and death for many people.
Coronavirus pneumonia is accompanied by rapid virus replication, where a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine storm may lead to acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. The uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, is associated with ARDS. This constituted the first study to report on the variability in physicochemical properties of β-glucans extracts from the same edible mushroom Lentinus edodes on the reduction of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.