Top 10 Articles About Diabetes

Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health.
Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.
Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans.
Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.
Glucan improves impaired wound healing in diabeticrats.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a contributing factor to impaired wound healing in humans. A large body of evidence indicates that the diabetic state is associated with delayed or reduced wound repair capacity. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of glucan on improving abdominal wall wound healing in rats with DM.
Effects of β-glucan and Vitamin D Supplementation on Inflammatory Parameters in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy
The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential effects of beta-glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated the levels of several parameters of inflammatory reactions (C-reactive protein [CRP], serum amyloid A [SAA], and interleukin- [IL-] 6), leptin, and vitamin D. Using a 3-month interval, we divided the patients into three groups: (1) supplemented with beta-glucan and vitamin D, (2) supplemented with vitamin D and placebo, and (3) supplemented with vitamin D alone. By this division, we aim not only to observe whether beta-glucan can increase the effects of vitamin D, but also to eliminate the potential effects of placebo. The doses of vitamin D corresponded to phototype, weight, age, and sex of the individual. Fifty-two diabetic retinopathy patients were selected for our study. We found significant vitamin D deficits in all cases, even after three months of supplementation with vitamin D. Significant changes in levels of CRP were observed in the beta-glucan-supplemented group; levels of SAA and IL-6 were not changed. Leptin levels were significantly lowered in the beta-glucan-supplemented group and increased in the other groups. More detailed studies and/or longer supplementation is necessary.
Concentration of NK cells after β-glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy
In our study, we focused on possible effects of supplementation with glucan and vitamin D on total numbers of NK cells in patients with diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated possible relations among nutritional state (BMI), leptin levels, and total numbers of NK cells in patients supplemented with (1) glucan and vitamin D, (2) vitamin D and placebo, and (3) vitamin D alone. Our results show that 3 months of supplementation with both glucan and vitamin D resulted in significant improvements of NK cell numbers. In addition, we found statistically significant correlation between NK cell numbers and leptin levels. Based on these results, we propose that the molecule responsible for these changes is glucan, as vitamin D alone or together with placebo caused no effects.
Vitamin D and β-glucan supplementation affects levels of leptin, apolipoproteins and general nutrition state in patients with diabetic retinopathy
Aims: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. A global pandemic increase in diabetes has led to the search for new preventative, diagnostic and curative methods. We aimed to evaluate levels of vitamin D, apolipoproteins A and B, and leptin after vitamin D/glucan supplementation. Methods: Using a collection of 52 patients with diabetic retinopathy, we evaluated levels of vitamin D, apolipoproteins A and B, and leptin, we compared this data with effects of food supplementation with vitamin D and β-glucan. We correlated our findings with a group of 20 healthy individuals. Results: There was a statistically relevant reduction of vitamin D levels in all tested groups, but more so in the diabetic group. The group supplemented with both vitamin D and β-glucan had suppressed levels of leptin, whereas supplementation with vitamin D caused an increase of leptin levels. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we conclude the importance of vitamin D and β-glucan supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Beta Glucan: Supplement or Drug? From Laboratory to Clinical Trials
Glucans are part of a group of biologically active natural molecules and are steadily gaining strong attention not only as an important food supplement, but also as an immunostimulant and potential drug. This paper represents an up-to-date review of glucans (β-1,3-glucans) and their role in various immune reactions and the treatment of cancer. With more than 80 clinical trials evaluating their biological effects, the question is not if glucans will move from food supplement to widely accepted drug, but how soon
Hypocaloric, plant-based oatmeal interventions in the treatment of poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes: A review
Background: Lifestyle interventions, including dietary modifications, play a key role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. By the second half of the last century, dietary oatmeal interventions had frequently been used in patients with diabetes; however, with the widespread introduction of insulin, this practice gradually fell into disuse. Within the last decades, the original oatmeal intervention, first described in 1903, has been modified towards a hypocaloric, low-fat, and plant-based intervention.
Nutraceutical functions of beta-glucans in human nutrition
Recent studies have shown that naturally occurring substances found in the food of the daily human diet are important for preventing chronic non-communicable diseases. One of them is beta-glucan, which is a natural polysaccharide, occurring in plant cell walls, mainly oats, barley and wheat. It is also present in baker’s yeast cells, fungal cell walls, and some microorganisms. Beta-glucan belongs to one of the dietary fiber fractions, which are attributed a number of beneficial health properties, including the prevention and treatment of certain digestive diseases and supporting the immune system. This compound has biological activity that depends on the size, molecular weight, conformation, frequency of bonds, solubility and changes in structure. Beta-glucan reduces cholesterol and glucose concentrations in the blood, which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition to its effects on lipid levels and glucose metabolism, beta-glucan also exhibits antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing the risk of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Immunostimulatory and antitumor effects have also been reported. The immunostimulatory activity of beta-glucan occurs as a result of its attachment to specific receptors present on the immune cell surface. Beta-glucan belongs to the group of prebiotics which stimulate the growth and activity of the desired natural intestinal microbiota, while inhibiting the growth of pathogens. It plays an important role in the proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and preventing inflammation as well as colon cancer. Such a number of health benefits resulting from the properties of beta-glucan may play a key role in improving health and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.