Top 8 Articles About autoimmune diseases
Traditional herbal medicine has provided natural remedies against cancers and many age-related inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Modern drug discovery techniques have revealed several active ingredients and their medicinal targets have been characterized. Concurrently, there has been great progress in understanding the pathological mechanisms underpinning cancers and inflammatory diseases. These studies have demonstrated that immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have a crucial role in the immune escape of cancer cells thus promoting tumor growth. Inflammatory factors stimulate the recruitment, expansion, and activation of MDSCs in tumors and inflamed tissues. The immunosuppression generated by MDSCs has an important role in the resolution of acute inflammation but in chronic inflammatory disorders, the activation of MDSCs suppresses the innate and adaptive immune responses thus aggravating the disease processes in association with tumors, chronic infections, and many degenerative diseases. Currently, MDSCs are important drug discovery targets in cancers and chronic inflammatory diseases. Interestingly, there are promising reports that certain phytochemicals can function as potent inhibitors of the immunosuppressive MDSCs that could partially explain the therapeutic benefits of herbal medicine. We will briefly describe the immune suppressive functions of MDSCs in cancers and age-related inflammatory diseases and then review in detail the chemically characterized phytochemicals of different herbal categories, e.g. flavonoids, terpenoids, retinoids, curcumins, and β-glucans, which possess the MDSC-dependent antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties.
The preparation and characterization of a series of di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide analogues of β-(1→3)-glucans is described in which each pyranoside ring is replaced by a 5-thiopyranosyl ring and each glycosidic oxygen by a thioether. These oligomeric 1,5-dithio-d-glucopyranose derivatives were shown to inhibit the staining of human neutrophils and of mouse macrophages by fluorescent anti-CR3 and anti-Dectin-1 antibodies, respectively.
Extrapolating from lessons learnt with previous low-molecular-weight β-(1→3)-glucan mimetics, we designed a series of minimal 2,4-dideoxy-thioether-linked carbacyclic β-(1→3)-glucan mimetics and synthesized di-, tri-, and tetramers in an enantiomerically pure form by an iterative sequence based on a simple building block readily available from commercial ( S)-(-)-3-cyclohexenecarboxylic acid.
Here, we identify Dectin-1 as a crucial tolerogenic receptor binding with nanomolar affinity to the core domain of several annexins (annexin A1, A5, and A13) exposed on ACs. Annexins bind to Dectin-1 on a site distinct from the interaction site of pathogen-derived β-glucans.
This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D).
IMG administration had a positive immunomodulating effect on all cytokine plasma levels measured, changed markedly due to arthritis progression. Thus, IMG may be considered as a candidate for combinatorial therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.